When the preferences of economic elites and the stands of organized interest groups are controlled for, the preferences of the average American appear to have only a minuscule, near-zero, statistically non-significant impact upon public policy.
(Gilens & Page, 2014, p.575)
2014). Testing theories of American politics: Elites, interest groups, and average citizens. Perspectives on Politics. (
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1017/S1537592714001595