United States Government official PsyOp manuals

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Sequential & longitudinal transgenerational trauma

Sequential traumatisation in children
Results of a follow-up study by Hans Keilson

Abstract
In view of the variety of psychopathological, psychiatric-diagnostic and fundamental methodological questions in the medical recording and description of the condition of the survivors of Nazi terror, a man-made-disaster event of an extent of wickedness hitherto unknown in psychiatric traumatology, it seems to me not insignificant to begin with a few considerations with regard to the topic. Despite all the difficulties of integrating the biographical-anecdotal moment of a massively cumulative traumatised life course of adult persecutees into a superordinate system of a scientifically justifiable structure of thought, all the investigators, whatever theoretical presuppositions they followed, could start from the common principle that the elements of persecution, insofar as they were survived at all, represented and meant in their individual and in their entire experiential content an incursion into the “adult, mature personality”. What they represented and what they meant are the central problems that played a central and, as we all know, not always sublime role in reparation legislation and practice.

link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-51871-3_8

Study overview: Nanotechnology in Covid-19 “vaccines”

The future of nanotechnology
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Image source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997390/?report=reader

Further References

Ruiz-Hitzky, E., Darder, M., Wicklein, B., Ruiz-Garcia, C., Martín-Sampedro, R., del Real, G., & Aranda, P.. (2020). Nanotechnology Responses to COVID-19. Advanced Healthcare Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202000979
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Yang, D.. (2021). Application of nanotechnology in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Nanomedicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S296383
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Tharayil, A., Rajakumari, R., Chirayil, C. J., Thomas, S., & Kalarikkal, N.. (2021). A short review on nanotechnology interventions against COVID-19. Emergent Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s42247-021-00163-z
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Rasmi, Y., Saloua, K. S., Nemati, M., & Choi, J. R.. (2021). Recent progress in nanotechnology for covid-19 prevention, diagnostics and treatment. Nanomaterials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/nano11071788
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Chauhan, G., Madou, M. J., Kalra, S., Chopra, V., Ghosh, D., & Martinez-Chapa, S. O.. (2020). Nanotechnology for COVID-19: Therapeutics and Vaccine Research. ACS Nano

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c04006
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Tang, Z., Zhang, X., Shu, Y., Guo, M., Zhang, H., & Tao, W.. (2021). Insights from nanotechnology in COVID-19 treatment. Nano Today

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.nantod.2020.101019
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Singh, Y. D., Ningthoujam, R., Panda, M. K., Jena, B., Babu, P. J., & Mishra, A. K.. (2021). Insight from nanomaterials and nanotechnology towards COVID-19. Sensors International

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.sintl.2021.100099
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Paliwal, P., Sargolzaei, S., Bhardwaj, S. K., Bhardwaj, V., Dixit, C., & Kaushik, A.. (2020). Grand Challenges in Bio-Nanotechnology to Manage the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Nanotechnology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnano.2020.571284
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Campos, E. V. R., Pereira, A. E. S., De Oliveira, J. L., Carvalho, L. B., Guilger-Casagrande, M., De Lima, R., & Fraceto, L. F.. (2020). How can nanotechnology help to combat COVID-19? Opportunities and urgent need. Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/s12951-020-00685-4
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Tavares, J. L., Cavalcanti, I. D. L., Santos Magalhães, N. S., & Lira Nogueira, M. C. de B.. (2022). Nanotechnology and COVID-19: quo vadis?. Journal of Nanoparticle Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11051-022-05452-0
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Vahedifard, F., & Chakravarthy, K.. (2021). Nanomedicine for COVID-19: the role of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of COVID-19. Emergent Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s42247-021-00168-8
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Singh, P., Singh, D., Sa, P., Mohapatra, P., Khuntia, A., & Sahoo, S. K.. (2021). Insights from nanotechnology in COVID-19: Prevention, detection, therapy and immunomodulation. Nanomedicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2021-0004
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Hasanzadeh, A., Alamdaran, M., Ahmadi, S., Nourizadeh, H., Bagherzadeh, M. A., Mofazzal Jahromi, M. A., … Hamblin, M. R.. (2021). Nanotechnology against COVID-19: Immunization, diagnostic and therapeutic studies. Journal of Controlled Release

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.06.036
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Weiss, C., Carriere, M., Fusco, L., Fusco, L., Capua, I., Regla-Nava, J. A., … Delogu, L. G.. (2020). Toward Nanotechnology-Enabled Approaches against the COVID-19 Pandemic. ACS Nano

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c03697
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Rangayasami, A., Kannan, K., Murugesan, S., Radhika, D., Sadasivuni, K. K., Reddy, K. R., & Raghu, A. V.. (2021). Influence of nanotechnology to combat against COVID-19 for global health emergency: A review. Sensors International

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.sintl.2020.100079
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Chintagunta, A. D., Sai Krishna, M., Nalluru, S., & Sampath Kumar, N. S.. (2021). Nanotechnology: an emerging approach to combat COVID-19. Emergent Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s42247-021-00178-6
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Cardoso, V. M. de O., Moreira, B. J., Comparetti, E. J., Sampaio, I., Ferreira, L. M. B., Lins, P. M. P., & Zucolotto, V.. (2020). Is Nanotechnology Helping in the Fight Against COVID-19?. Frontiers in Nanotechnology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnano.2020.588915
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Tavakol, S., Zahmatkeshan, M., Mohammadinejad, R., Mehrzadi, S., Joghataei, M. T., Alavijeh, M. S., & Seifalian, A.. (2021). The role of nanotechnology in current COVID-19 outbreak. Heliyon

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06841
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Du, L., Yang, Y., Zhang, X., & Li, F.. (2022). Recent advances in nanotechnology-based COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Nanoscale

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1039/d1nr03831a
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Chaudhary, V., Royal, A., Chavali, M., & Yadav, S. K.. (2021). Advancements in research and development to combat COVID-19 using nanotechnology. Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s41204-021-00102-7
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Rai, M., Bonde, S., Yadav, A., Bhowmik, A., Rathod, S., Ingle, P., & Gade, A.. (2021). Nanotechnology as a shield against covid-19: Current advancement and limitations. Viruses

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/v13071224
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Dube, A., Egieyeh, S., & Balogun, M.. (2021). A perspective on nanotechnology and covid-19 vaccine research and production in south africa. Viruses

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/v13102095
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Tyagi, P. K., Tyagi, S., Kumar, A., Ahuja, A., & Gola, D.. (2021). Contribution of nanotechnology in the fight against covid-19. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry

Plain numerical DOI: 10.33263/BRIAC111.82338241
DOI URL
directSciHub download

De M Ribeiro, L. N., & Fonseca, B. B.. (2020). The role of pharmaceutical nanotechnology in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Future Microbiology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2217/fmb-2020-0118
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Chung, Y. H., Beiss, V., Fiering, S. N., & Steinmetz, N. F.. (2020). Covid-19 vaccine frontrunners and their nanotechnology design. ACS Nano

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c07197
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Identity politics and SIT (Social Identity Theory)

Identity politics is a political approach wherein people of a particular race, religion, gender, social background, social class, environmental, or other identifying factors develop political agendas that are based upon these identities. Such groups often have support from allies outside the respective identity groups.

Online resource: plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-politics/

The laden phrase “identity politics” has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups. Rather than organizing solely around belief systems, programmatic manifestos, or party affiliation, identity political formations typically aim to secure the political freedom of a specific constituency marginalized within its larger context. Members of that constituency assert or reclaim ways of understanding their distinctiveness that challenge dominant characterizations, with the goal of greater self-determination.


Further References

Noury, A., & Roland, G.. (2020). Identity Politics and Populism in Europe. Annual Review of Political Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1146/annurev-polisci-050718-033542
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Sawitri, M. Y., & Wiratmaja, I. N.. (2021). On the brink of post-democracy: Indonesia’s identity politics in the post-truth era. Politicka Misao

Plain numerical DOI: 10.20901/PM.58.2.06
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Moran, M.. (2020). (Un)troubling identity politics: A cultural materialist intervention. European Journal of Social Theory

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1368431018819722
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Béland, D.. (2017). Identity, politics, and public policy. Critical Policy Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/19460171.2016.1159140
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Brunila, K., & Rossi, L. M.. (2018). Identity politics, the ethos of vulnerability, and education. Educational Philosophy and Theory

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/00131857.2017.1343115
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Paul, J.. (2019). ‘Not Black and White, but Black and Red’: Anti-identity identity politics and #AllLivesMatter. Ethnicities

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1468796818791661
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Purdeková, A., & Mwambari, D.. (2022). Post-genocide identity politics and colonial durabilities in Rwanda. Critical African Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/21681392.2021.1938404
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Lefaan, A.. (2021). Identity Politics And The Future Of Democracy In Papua. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues
Hess, J.. (2019). Singing our own song: Navigating identity politics through activism in music. Research Studies in Music Education

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1321103X18773094
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Bernstein, M.. (2005). Identity politics. Annual Review of Sociology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100054
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Karakas, L. D., & Mitra, D.. (2021). Electoral competition in the presence of identity politics. Journal of Theoretical Politics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0951629820984847
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Kumar, A., Elliott-Cooper, A., Iyer, S., & Gebrial, D.. (2018). An introduction to the special issue on identity politics. Historical Materialism

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1163/1569206X-00001776
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Gin, W.. (2021). Divided by Identity on the Left? Partisan Spillover and Identity Politics Alignment. Forum (Germany)

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/for-2021-0017
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Bliss, C.. (2013). The Marketization of Identity Politics. Sociology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0038038513495604
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Prieto, M.. (2022). Indigenous Resurgence, Identity Politics, and the Anticommodification of Nature: The Chilean Water Market and the Atacameño People. Annals of the American Association of Geographers

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/24694452.2021.1937036
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Wilhelmsen, F.. (2021). “The Wife Would Put on a Nice Suit, Hat, and Possibly Gloves”: The Misogynistic Identity Politics of Anders Behring Breivik. Fascism

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1163/22116257-10010003
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Kumar, P.. (2018). Rerouting the Narrative: Mapping the Online Identity Politics of the Tamil and Palestinian Diaspora. Social Media and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/2056305118764429
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Böschen, S., Legris, M., Pfersdorf, S., & Stahl, B. C.. (2020). Identity Politics: Participatory Research and Its Challenges Related to Social and Epistemic Control. Social Epistemology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/02691728.2019.1706121
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Chubin, F.. (2020). From Empowerment to Advocacy: Innominate Identity Politics as Feminist Advocacy in Iran. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s10767-019-09339-2
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Vaara, E., Tienari, J., & Koveshnikov, A.. (2021). From Cultural Differences to Identity Politics: A Critical Discursive Approach to National Identity in Multinational Corporations. Journal of Management Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/joms.12517
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Velasco, A.. (2020). Populism and Identity Politics. LSE Public Policy Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.31389/lseppr.1
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Wrenn, M.. (2014). Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism. Panoeconomicus

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2298/PAN1404503W
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Chaney, S.. (2020). Am I a researcher or a self-harmer? Mental health, objectivity and identity politics in history. Social Theory and Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1057/s41285-019-00093-1
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Rafi, M., Purnomo, E. P., & Wicaksono, B.. (2020). Riau Malay Identity Politics. Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya

Plain numerical DOI: 10.25077/jantro.v22.n1.p112-120.2020
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Knowles, E. D., Tropp, L. R., & Mogami, M.. (2022). When White Americans see “non-Whites” as a group: Belief in minority collusion and support for White identity politics. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/13684302211030009
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Fenton, J., & Smith, M.. (2019). ‘You Can’t Say That!’: Critical Thinking, Identity Politics, and the Social Work Academy. Societies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/soc9040071
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Pérez, M., & Radi, B.. (2020). Gender punitivism: Queer perspectives on identity politics in criminal justice. Criminology and Criminal Justice

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1748895820941561
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Kabir, N. A.. (2020). Identity Politics in India: Gujarat and Delhi Riots. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13602004.2020.1813990
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Kaasik-Krogerus, S.. (2020). Identity politics of the promotional videos of the European Heritage Label. Contemporary Politics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13569775.2019.1611207
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Lustig, K. C.. (2020). Equal Distribution of Inequality: Totality and the Limits of Identity Politics. Rethinking Marxism

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/08935696.2020.1727259
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Melcher, C. R.. (2021). The political economy of “White Identity Politics”: economic self-interest and perceptions of immigration. Ethnic and Racial Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2020.1730925
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Pap, A. L.. (2021). Neglect, Marginalization, and Abuse: Hate Crime Legislation and Practice in the Labyrinth of Identity Politics, Minority Protection, and Penal Populism. Nationalities Papers

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1017/nps.2020.21
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Boyer, M. M., Aaldering, L., & Lecheler, S.. (2022). Motivated Reasoning in Identity Politics: Group Status as a Moderator of Political Motivations. Political Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0032321720964667
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Dunn, S.. (2021). Identity politics, justice, and the quest for solidarity. Soundings

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5325/soundings.104.4.0281
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Lim, E.. (2021). Personal Identity Economics: Facebook and the Distortion of Identity Politics. Social Media and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/20563051211017492
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Fukuyama, F.. (2018). Against Identity Politics. Foreign Affairs
Churchwell, S.. (2019). America’s {Original} {Identity} {Politics}. The New York Review of Books
Khedir, H. H.. (2022). Not to mislead peace: on the demise of identity politics in Iraq. Third World Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2022.2047919
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Ilmonen, K.. (2019). Identity politics revisited: On Audre Lorde, intersectionality, and mobilizing writing styles. European Journal of Women’s Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1350506817702410
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Rudwick, S.. (2018). Language, Africanisation, and Identity Politics at a South African University. Journal of Language, Identity and Education

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/15348458.2018.1460207
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Moran, M.. (2018). Identity and identity politics: A cultural-materialist history. Historical Materialism

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1163/1569206X-00001630
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Orjuela, C.. (2014). Corruption and identity politics in divided societies. Third World Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2014.921426
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Lim, E.. (2020). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Facebook: Updating Identity Economics. Social Media and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/2056305120910144
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Prianti, D. D.. (2019). The Identity Politics of Masculinity as a Colonial Legacy. Journal of Intercultural Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/07256868.2019.1675612
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Kuhn, T.. (2019). Grand theories of European integration revisited: does identity politics shape the course of European integration?. Journal of European Public Policy

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13501763.2019.1622588
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Dotson, K.. (2018). On the way to decolonization in a settler colony: Re-introducing Black feminist identity politics. AlterNative

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1177180118783301
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Borup, J.. (2020). Who owns religion? Intersectionality, identity politics, and cultural appropriation in postglobal buddhism. Numen

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1163/15685276-12341574
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Arrieta Urtizberea, I., Seguí, J., & Roigé, X.. (2020). Folklore, museums and identity politics in Spain: 1931 to present. International Journal of Heritage Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13527258.2019.1639070
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Guo, D., & Hu, S.. (2019). Identity Politics and Democratic Crisis in Western Europe. Chinese Political Science Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s41111-019-00121-5
DOI URL
directSciHub download


Perry, E., Mandy, W., Hull, L., & Cage, E.. (2022). Understanding Camouflaging as a Response to Autism-Related Stigma: A Social Identity Theory Approach. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s10803-021-04987-w
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Mangum, M., & Block, R.. (2018). Social identity theory and public opinion towards immigration. Social Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/socsci7030041
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Davis, J. L., Love, T. P., & Fares, P.. (2019). Collective Social Identity: Synthesizing Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory Using Digital Data. Social Psychology Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0190272519851025
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Laffan, D. A.. (2021). Positive Psychosocial Outcomes and Fanship in K-Pop Fans: A Social Identity Theory Perspective. Psychological Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0033294120961524
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J.. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/2695870
DOI URL
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Scheifele, C., Ehrke, F., Viladot, M. A., Van Laar, C., & Steffens, M. C.. (2021). Testing the basic socio-structural assumptions of social identity theory in the gender context: Evidence from correlational studies on women’s leadership. European Journal of Social Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2678
DOI URL
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Paruzel, A., Danel, M., & Maier, G. W.. (2020). Scrutinizing Social Identity Theory in Corporate Social Responsibility: An Experimental Investigation. Frontiers in Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.580620
DOI URL
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Jansen, M. M., & Delahaij, R.. (2020). Leadership Acceptance Through the Lens of Social Identity Theory: A Case Study of Military Leadership in Afghanistan. Armed Forces and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0095327X19845027
DOI URL
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Willetts, G., & Clarke, D.. (2014). Constructing nurses’ professional identity through social identity theory. International Journal of Nursing Practice

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12108
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Bochatay, N., Bajwa, N. M., Blondon, K. S., Junod Perron, N., Cullati, S., & Nendaz, M. R.. (2019). Exploring group boundaries and conflicts: a social identity theory perspective. Medical Education

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/medu.13881
DOI URL
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Edwards, C., Edwards, A., Stoll, B., Lin, X., & Massey, N.. (2019). Evaluations of an artificial intelligence instructor’s voice: Social Identity Theory in human-robot interactions. Computers in Human Behavior

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.027
DOI URL
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Awuor, D. C.. (2021). Understanding black-african international students’ experiences in united states colleges and universities through social identity theory. Journal of International Students

Plain numerical DOI: 10.32674/jis.v11i2.2741
DOI URL
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Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J., & White, K. M.. (1995). A Tale of Two Theories: A Critical Comparison of Identity Theory with Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/2787127
DOI URL
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Whitaker, M. C.. (2020). Us and Them: Using Social Identity Theory to Explain and Re-envision Teacher–Student Relationships in Urban Schools. Urban Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11256-019-00539-w
DOI URL
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Hogg, M. A.. (2001). A social identity theory of leadership. Personality and Social Psychology Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0503_1
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Ambrose, S. C., Matthews, L. M., & Rutherford, B. N.. (2018). Cross-functional teams and social identity theory: A study of sales and operations planning (S&OP). Journal of Business Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.07.052
DOI URL
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Guan, M., & So, J.. (2016). Influence of Social Identity on Self-Efficacy Beliefs Through Perceived Social Support: A Social Identity Theory Perspective. Communication Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/10510974.2016.1239645
DOI URL
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Hornsey, M. J.. (2008). Social Identity Theory and Self-categorization Theory: A Historical Review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00066.x
DOI URL
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Ferguson, M. A., & Ford, T. E.. (2008). Disparagement humor: A theoretical and empirical review of psychoanalytic, superiority, and social identity theories. Humor

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/HUMOR.2008.014
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directSciHub download

Huddy, L.. (2001). From social to political identity: A critical examination of social identity theory. Political Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/0162-895X.00230
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Pan, N. D., Gruber, M., & Binder, J.. (2019). Painting with All the Colors: The Value of Social Identity Theory for Understanding Social Entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5465/amr.2017.0504
DOI URL
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Seering, J., Ng, F., Yao, Z., & Kaufman, G.. (2018). Applications of social identity theory to research and design in social computing. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3274771
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Raskovic, M., & Takacs-Haynes, K.. (2020). (Re)discovering social identity theory: an agenda for multinational enterprise internalization theory. Multinational Business Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/MBR-02-2020-0031
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Lam, S. K., Ahearne, M., Hu, Y., & Schillewaert, N.. (2010). Resistance to brand switching when a radically new brand is introduced: A social identity theory perspective. Journal of Marketing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1509/jmkg.74.6.128
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Baker, C. A.. (2012). Social identity theory and biblical interpretation. Biblical Theology Bulletin

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0146107912452244
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Dr. Herbert Krugman (1969): Watching television induces alpha brain waves (similar to hypnosis)

  • Consumer Behavior and Advertising Involvement: Selected Works of Herbert E. Krugman (Marketing and Consumer Psychology Series)

This book is an honor to the many important contributions of Herbert Krugman, past president of APA (American Psychological Association), The Division of Consumer Psychology and The Association for Public Opinions Research. This reader contains his selected works in Consumer Behavior and Advertising which combine insights from Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology and Survey Methodology. William Wells, University of Minnesota, has provided the foreword and section overviews for the book which will help it appeal to all academics and students of consumer research.

“The fact that TV is a source not actively or critically attended to was made dramatically evident in the late 1960s by an experiment that rocked the world of political and product advertising and forever changed the ways in which the television medium would be used. The results of the experiment still reverberate through the industry long after its somewhat primitive methods have been perfected.

“In November 1969, a researcher named Herbert Krugman, who later became manager of public-opinion research at General Electric headquarters in Connecticut, decided to try to discover what goes on physiologically in the brain of a person watching TV. He elicited the co-operation of a twenty-two-year-old secretary and taped a single electrode to the back of her head. The wire from this electrode connected to a Grass Model 7 Polygraph, which in turn interfaced with a Honeywell 7600 computer and a CAT 400B computer.

“Flicking on the TV, Krugman began monitoring the brain-waves of the subject What he found through repeated trials was that within about thirty seconds, the brain-waves switched from predominantly beta waves, indicating alert and conscious attention, to predominantly alpha waves, indicating an unfocused, receptive lack of attention: the state of aimless fantasy and daydreaming below the threshold of consciousness. When Krugman’s subject turned to reading through a magazine, beta waves reappeared, indicating that conscious and alert attentiveness had replaced the daydreaming state.

“What surprised Krugman, who had set out to test some McLuhanesque hypotheses about the nature of TV-viewing, was how rapidly the alpha-state emerged. Further research revealed that the brain’s left hemisphere, which processes information logically and analytically, tunes out while the person is watching TV. This tuning-out allows the right hemisphere of the brain, which processes information emotionally and noncritically, to function unimpeded. ‘It appears,’ wrote Krugman in a report of his findings, ‘that the mode of response to television is more or less constant and very different from the response to print. That is, the basic electrical response of the brain is clearly to the medium and not to content difference…. [Television is] a communication medium that effortlessly transmits huge quantities of information not thought about at the time of exposure.’

“Soon, dozens of agencies were engaged in their own research into the television-brain phenomenon and its implications. The findings led to a complete overhaul in the theories, techniques, and practices that had structured the advertising industry and, to an extent, the entire television industry. The key phrase in Krugman’s findings was that TV transmits ‘information not thought about at the time of exposure.'” [p.p. 69-70]

“As Herbert Krugman noted in the research that transformed the industry, we do not consciously or rationally attend to the material resonating with our unconscious depths at the time of transmission. Later, however, when we encounter a store display, or a real-life situation like one in an ad, or a name on a ballot that conjures up our television experience of the candidate, a wealth of associations is triggered. Schwartz explains: ‘The function of a display in the store is to recall the consumer’s experience of the product in the commercial…. You don’t ask for a product: The product asks for you! That is, a person’s recall of a commercial is evoked by the product itself, visible on a shelf or island display, interacting with the stored data in his brain.’ Just as in Julian Jaynes’s ancient cultures, where the internally heard speech of the gods was prompted by props like the corpse of a chieftain or a statue, so, too, our internalized media echoes are triggered by products, props, or situations in the environment.

“As real-life experience is increasingly replaced by the mediated ‘experience’ of television-viewing, it becomes easy for politicians and market-researchers of all sorts to rely on a base of mediated mass experience that can be evoked by appropriate triggers. The TV ‘world’ becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy: the mass mind takes shape, its participants acting according to media-derived impulses and believing them to be their own personal volition arising out of their own desires and needs. In such a situation, whoever controls the screen controls the future, the past, and the present.” [p. 82, Joyce Nelson, THE PERFICT MACHINE; New Society Pub., 1992, 800-253-3605; ISBN 0-86571-235-2
Source: www.modeemi.fi/~no/page24.html


Further References

Krugman, H. E.. (1977). Public Attitudes toward the Apollo Space Program, 1965–1975. Journal of Communication, 27(4), 87–93.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1977.tb01861.x
DOI URL
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Krugman, H. E.. (1964). Some Applications of Pupil Measurement. Journal of Marketing Research, 1(4), 15–19.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/002224376400100402
DOI URL
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Krugman, H. E.. (1966). White and Negro Responses to Package Designs. Journal of Marketing Research, 3(2), 199.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/3150212
DOI URL
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Krugman, H. E.. (1956). An Historical Note on Motivation Research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 20(4), 719.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/266673
DOI URL
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Krugman, H. E., & Hartley, E. L.. (1960). The Learning of Tastes. Public Opinion Quarterly, 24(4), 621.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/266977
DOI URL
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Krugman, H. E.. (1966). The Measurement of Advertising Involvement. Public Opinion Quarterly, 30(4), 583.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/267457
DOI URL
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Krugman, H. E.. (1983). Television program interest and commercial interruption. Journal of Advertising Research
Krugman, H. E.. (1965). The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement. Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(3), 349.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/267335
DOI URL
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DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane): An experiment on the masses

DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) was developed as the first of the modern synthetic insecticides in the 1940s. It was initially used with great effect to combat malaria, typhus, and the other insect-borne human diseases among both military and civilian populations (including “mass-spraying” on children – see video below). Toxicological studies demonstrate that DDT has numerous adverse effects (see references below).


Further References

Epstein, S. S.. (1972). Letters to the Editor. Science, 177(4047), 388–388.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1126/science.177.4047.388
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Hawkey, A. B., Holloway, Z., Dean, C., Koburov, R., Slotkin, T. A., Seidler, F. J., & Levin, E. D.. (2021). Neurobehavioral anomalies in zebrafish after sequential exposures to DDT and chlorpyrifos in adulthood: Do multiple exposures interact?. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 87, 106985.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ntt.2021.106985
DOI URL
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Krzastek, S. C., Farhi, J., Gray, M., & Smith, R. P.. (2020). Impact of environmental toxin exposure on male fertility potential. Translational Andrology and Urology, 9(6), 2797–2813.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21037/tau-20-685
DOI URL
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Russell, P. F.. (1972). DDT Toxicology. Science, 177(4047), 387–388.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1126/science.177.4047.387
DOI URL
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Persson, E. C., Graubard, B. I., Evans, A. A., London, W. T., Weber, J.-P., LeBlanc, A., … McGlynn, K. A.. (2012). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. International Journal of Cancer, 131(9), 2078–2084.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27459
DOI URL
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Oliver, S. V., & Brooke, B. D.. (2013). The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. Malaria Journal, 12(1), 44.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-44
DOI URL
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Turusov, V., Rakitsky, V., & Tomatis, L.. (2002). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): ubiquity, persistence, and risks.. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(2), 125–128.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1289/ehp.02110125
DOI URL
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Booij, P., Holoubek, I., Klánová, J., Kohoutek, J., Dvorská, A., Magulová, K., … Čupr, P.. (2016). Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman. Science of The Total Environment, 550, 231–240.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.044
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Rosner, D., & Markowitz, G.. (2013). Persistent pollutants: A brief history of the discovery of the widespread toxicity of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environmental Research, 120, 126–133.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2012.08.011
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The germ theory of disease: Experiments to determine mode of spread of influenza (Dr. Milton J. Rosenau, 1919)

ROSENAU, M. J.. (1919). EXPERIMENTS TO DETERMINE MODE OF SPREAD OF INFLUENZA. Journal of the American Medical Association, 73(5), 311.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1001/jama.1919.02610310005002
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Fulltext: sci-hub.ru/10.1001/jama.1919.02610310005002

Abstract:
The experiments here described were performed on an island in Boston Harbor, on volunteers obtained from the Navy. The work was conducted by a group of officers detailed for that purpose, from the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Public Health Service, consisting of Dr. G. W. McCoy, director of the Hygienic Library, Dr. Joseph Goldberger, Dr. Leake, and Dr. Lake, all on the part of the U. S. Public Health Service; and cooperating with those medical officers, was a group also detailed for this purpose on the part of the U. S. Navy, consisting of Dr. J. J. Keegan, Dr. De Wayne Richey and myself.

The work itself was conducted at Gallops Island, which is the quarantine station of the Port of Boston, and peculiarly well fitted for operations of this kind, serving adequately for the purposes of isolation, observations, and maintenance of the large group of volunteers

Excerpt:
“The volunteers were all of the most susceptible age, mostly between 18 and 25, only a few of them around 30 years old ; and all were in good physical condition. None of these volunteers, 100 all told in number, had “influenza ;” that is, from the most care¬ ful histories that we could elicit, they gave no account of a febrile attack of any kind during the winter, except a few who were purposely selected, as having shown a typical attack of influenza, in order to test questions of immunity, and for the purpose of control. Now, we proceeded rather cautiously at first by administering a pure culture of bacillus of influenza, Pfeiffer’s bacillus, in a rather moderate amount, into the nostrils of a few of these volunteers. These early experiments I will not stop to relate, but I will go at once to what I may call our Experiment 1.”

***

As the preliminary trials proved negative, we became bolder, and selecting nineteen of our volunteers, gave each one of them a very large quantity of a mixture of thirteen different strains of the Pfeiffer bacillus, some of them obtained recently from the lungs at necropsy; others were subcultures of varying age, and each of the thirteen had, of course, a different history. Suspensions of these organisms were sprayed with an atomi¬ zer into the nose and into the eyes, and back into the throat, while the volunteers were breathing in. We used some billions of these organisms, according to our estimated counts, on each one of the volunteers, but none of them took sick. Then we proceeded to transfer the virus obtained from cases of the disease ; that is, we collected the material and mucous secretions of the mouth and nose and throat and bronchi from cases of the disease and transferred this to our volunteers. We always obtained this material in the same way : The patient with fever, in bed, has a large, shallow, traylike arrangement before him or her, and we washed out one nostril with some sterile salt solution, using perhaps 5 ce., which is allowed to run into this tray ; and that nostril is blown vigorously into the tray. This is repeated with the other nostril. The patient then gargles with some of the solution. Next we obtain some bronchial mucus through coughing, and then we swab the mucous surface of each nares and also the mucous membrane of the throat. We place these swabs with the material in a bottle with glass beads, and add all the material obtained in the tray. This is the stuff we transfer to our volunteers. In this par¬ ticular experiment, in which we used ten volunteers, each of them received a comparatively small quantity of this, about 1 c.c. sprayed into each nostril and into the throat, while inspiring, and on the eye. None of these took sick. Some of the same material was fil¬ tered and instilled into other volunteers but produced no results.

***

Our next experiment consisted in injections of blood. We took five donors, five cases of influenza in the febrile stage, some of them again quite early in the disease. We drew 20 ‘c.c. from the arm vein of each, making a total of 100 c.c, which was mixed and treated with 1 per cent, of sodium citrate. Ten c.c. of the citrated whole blood were injected into each of the ten volunteers. None of them took sick in any way. Then we collected a lot of mucous material from the upper respiratory tract, and filtered ‘ it through Man- dler filters. While these filters will hold back the bacteria of ordinary size, they will allow “ultramicro- scopic” organisms to pass. This filtrate was injected into ten volunteers, each one receiving 3.5 c.c. sub- cutaneously, and none of these took sick in any way.

***

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_J._Rosenau

Eyler, J. M.. (2010). The state of science, microbiology, and vaccines circa 1918. Public Health Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/00333549101250s306
DOI URL
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Excerpt:

“Perhaps the most interesting epidemiological studies conducted during the 1918–1919 pandemic were the human experiments conducted by the Public Health Service and the U.S. Navy under the supervision of Milton Rosenau on Gallops Island, the quarantine station in Boston Harbor, and on Angel Island, its counterpart in San Francisco. The experiment began with 100 volunteers from the Navy who had no history of influenza. Rosenau was the first to report on the experiments conducted at Gallops Island in November and December 1918.69 His first volunteers received first one strain and then several strains of Pfeiffer’s bacillus by spray and swab into their noses and throats and then into their eyes. When that procedure failed to produce disease, others were inoculated with mixtures of other organisms isolated from the throats and noses of influenza patients. Next, some volunteers received injections of blood from influenza patients. Finally, 13 of the volunteers were taken into an influenza ward and exposed to 10 influenza patients each. Each volunteer was to shake hands with each patient, to talk with him at close range, and to permit him to cough directly into his face. None of the volunteers in these experiments developed influenza. Rosenau was clearly puzzled, and he cautioned against drawing conclusions from negative results. He ended his article in JAMA with a telling acknowledgement: “We entered the outbreak with a notion that we knew the cause of the disease, and were quite sure we knew how it was transmitted from person to person. Perhaps, if we have learned anything, it is that we are not quite sure what we know about the disease.”69 (p. 313)

The research conducted at Angel Island and that continued in early 1919 in Boston broadened this research by inoculating with the Mathers streptococcus and by including a search for filter-passing agents, but it produced similar negative results.70–72 It seemed that what was acknowledged to be one of the most contagious of communicable diseases could not be transferred under experimental conditions.”
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862332/

Pont-Saint-Esprit mass poisoning

Challet, V.. (2006). Compoix et tensions sociales : l’exemple de Pont-Saint-Esprit (1390). In De l’estime au cadastre en Europe. Le Moyen Âge (pp. 289–305). Institut de la gestion publique et du développement économique

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4000/books.igpde.12032
DOI URL
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Gabbai, Lisbonne, & Pourquier. (1951). Ergot Poisoning at Pont St. Esprit. BMJ, 2(4732), 650–651.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1136/bmj.2.4732.650
DOI URL
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The 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit mass poisoning, also known as Le Pain Maudit, was a mass poisoning on 15 August 1951, in the small town of Pont-Saint-Esprit in southern France. More than 250 people were involved, including 50 people interned in asylums and 7 deaths. A foodborne illness was suspected, and among these it was originally believed to be a case of “cursed bread”.

A majority of (possibly naive) academic sources accept naturally occurring ergot poisoning as the cause of the epidemic, while a few theorize other causes such as poisoning by mercury, mycotoxins, or nitrogen trichloride.

Cf.:
U.S. General Accounting Office Report

The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.
Citation from the study:

… Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of “volunteer” soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects…


Background

During the Vichy government, the supply of grains from field to mill to bakery was directed by the government’s grain control board, the Office National Interprofessionnel des Céréales (ONIC), and later the Union Meuniere. Essentially, this created a government monopoly on the sale of flour, allowing the government a measure of control over wartime supply shortages. This also meant that flour would be purchased directly from ONIC, and delivered to the baker for a set price, without the baker being able to have any control on quality. Following the end of the second world war, this system was relaxed, allowing for bakers to have some choice over their flour supply. ONIC retained its monopoly on inter-departmental exportation and importation. By this system, millers in departments with more supply than demand could sell the excess to ONIC. In practice, this meant that the higher-quality flour would be delivered to local bakers and lower-quality flour would be exported to other departments. Thus, departments with net flour deficits, like the Gard department in which Pont-Saint-Esprit was located, would be supplied with lower-quality flour from other departments via ONIC, with the bakers having virtually no choice of the provenance or quality of their flour.[8]: 224-225
Previous sanitary events

In the weeks preceding the outbreak, several villages near Pont-Saint-Esprit reported outbreaks of food poisoning via bread. These outbreaks were all linked to bakeries that made their bread with most if not all of their flour supplied by the mill of Maurice Maillet, in Saint-Martin-la-Riviere. The symptoms reported were milder than those reported in Pont-Saint-Esprit.

At Issirac, at least 20 people reported cutaneous eruptions, diarrhea, vomiting and headaches. Similar symptoms were reported in Laval-Saint-Roman. Multiple families were reported sick in Goudargues and Lamotte-du-Rhone.

In Connaux, the town’s baker received reports from his clients that they believed his bread was causing violent diarrhea. He reported that his family, as well as himself, were all suffering from the same afflictions. The baker was quick to blame his flour, which he described as “bad, forming a sticky dough with acid fermentation” and which made gray and sticky bread.

In Saint-Genies-de-Comolas, the town’s mayor was alerted by one of the town’s two bakers that he received flour that was gray and full of worms. The mayor banned making bread with that flour, and referred the situation to the region’s prefect, as well as to the driver that delivered the flour.

The delivery driver, Jean Bousquet, sent the prefect a copy of a remark made to his employer, the miller’s union in Nimes, on 9 August. The note said that “almost every baker of Centre de Bagnols/Cèze has complained of the quality of the flour provided by Mr. Maillet”. Following the incident at Connaux, Bousquet requested immediate written instructions from his employer regarding the situation. On the 13th of August, he requested that samples be taken to determine if the flour was contaminated. During this period, 42 bakers complained of the flour delivered by Bousquet.
Mass poisoning

On 16 August 1951, the local offices of the town’s two doctors filled with patients reporting similar food poisoning symptoms; nausea, vomiting, cold chills, heat waves. These symptoms eventually worsened, with added hallucinatory crises and convulsions. The situation in the town deteriorated in the following days. On the night of 24 August, a man believed himself to be an aeroplane and died by jumping from a second-story window, and an 11-year-old boy tried to strangle his mother. One of the town’s two doctors would name the night nuit d’apocalypse; apocalyptic night.
Epidemiological investigation

Doctors Vieu and Gabbai investigated the epidemiology of the disease. On 19 August, they came to the conclusion that bread was to blame; all patients interrogated had purchased their bread at the Briand bakery in Pont-Saint-Esprit. In a family from a neighboring village four of whose nine members fell ill, all members who ate bread from the Briand bakery fell ill, whereas none of the others who ate bread from another bakery did. Another family shared a loaf of Briand’s bread among five of its seven members, the others preferring biscottes, with only the five falling ill.

On the morning of the 20th, the health service, the prefecture, the prosecutor of the Republic and the police were notified. Roch Briand was interrogated, and the sickness in the town was blamed on his bread.
Criminal investigation

The police investigation would eventually center on the second of three batches of bread made at Briand’s bakery on the day of 16 August. The flour composition of each batch varied, as having run out of flour during the preparation of the second batch, Briand had borrowed flour from two other local bakers, Jaussent and Fallavet. Briand’s assistant stated that when he picked up flour from Jaussent, the baker was out ill, and that he took the flour from his assistant instead.

Both Briand and his assistant agreed that the first batch was constituted of the previous day’s flour mixed with flour borrowed from Jaussent. They disagreed on the second and third batches. Whereas Briand stated that the second was made with Jaussent’s flour and the third with Fallavet’s flour, the assistant stated that both latter batches were made with a mix of the two.

The investigation led police to interrogate many of the town’s residents, who gave inconsistent ratings of Briand’s tainted batch. Some reported that the taste was perfectly normal, while others reported chemical smells (one described an odor of gasoline, another of bleach). Some reported that the bread looked normal, while others stated that its appearance was grayish.
Inquiry

On the 23rd of August, a judge of inquiry opened a formal investigation, and tasked commissaire Georges Sigaud with finding the cause of the mass poisoning event.

The tainted bread made by Briand was made with only four ingredients: flour, yeast, water and salt. All of the ingredients but the flour could be easily discounted as sources of the illness. The water used to make the bread was from a municipal source, the same that also supplied the rest of the village. Both the salt and the yeast used by Briand were sourced from the same suppliers as all other bakers in the region, and subsequent testing of the supplies found no toxicity.

The investigation of the provenance of the flour led Sigaud to the UM-Gard flour distribution centre, in Bagnols-sur-Cèze. The chief of the distribution network, Jean Bousquet, stated that since the end of July, the vast majority of the flour supplying the region was from two mills; one in Châtillon-sur-Indre, and the other being the mill of Maurice Maillet in Saint-Martin-la-Rivière, the latter of which was the subject of numerous complaints about the quality of its flour.

Maurice Maillet

In an interrogation that lasted multiple hours, Maurice Maillet denied mixing rye (which is highly susceptible to ergot) into his flour, opting instead to cut his product with 2% of bean flour. This was unusual, given that owing to a shortage of wheat, ONIC had mandated that rye flour be mixed in. However, in the Vienne department, rye of good quality was often more expensive than wheat, and accordingly, bean flour was authorised by ONIC as a replacement.[8]: 459

Despite this, it came to light that the supply of grains to be milled for export was sometimes mixed with grains milled in an informal agreement called échangisme. Under this type of agreement, often practiced at the time, a farmer would bring a baker grain he grew himself in exchange for bread that would later be made with his grain. The baker would bring the grain to the miller, who would mill it. The miller and baker would each take a cut for sale.

During the interrogation, Maillet admitted that he had made a deal with a baker, Guy Bruère, who had brought in bags to be milled. Since this was near the end of the season, the bags were filled with leftover grain that sometimes contained a high proportion of rye. The rye was not the only problem with the flour, as the miller also noted the presence of weevils, mites and dust. The baker was concerned that he would lose business should he refuse the grain on the basis of quality. Despite the miller having noticed the low quality of the grains, he agreed to exchange the grain for a lower quantity of flour already milled from grain marked for export. Given that the quantity of lower-quality grain was much lower than that of the grain for export, the miller thought that it would be possible to mix it all without reducing the overall quality of the flour.

Arrests and trial

On August 31, around 14:30, Sigaud addressed the media, announcing the arrests of Maillet and Bruère for involuntary manslaughter and involuntary injuries arising from their negligence in trading improper flour. Further arrests were made in the following days: an employee of Maillet, André Bertrand, was arrested, but released on bail as he was the head of a family of nine whose wife was about to give birth. The owners of the bakery at which Bruère was employed, Clothaire and Denise Audidier, were also arrested for infractions of fiscal legislation and of legislation governing wheat and flour.[8]: 471
Scientific publishing

Shortly after the incident, in September 1951, Dr. Gabbai and colleagues published a paper in the British Medical Journal declaring that “the outbreak of poisoning” was produced by ergot fungus.[10] The victims appeared to have one common connection. They had eaten bread from the bakery of Roch Briand, who was subsequently blamed for having used flour made from contaminated rye. Animals who had eaten the bread were also found to have perished.[10] According to reports at the time, the flour had been contaminated by the fungus Claviceps purpurea (ergot), which produces alkaloids that are structurally similar to the hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

Other theories

Later investigations suggested mercury poisoning due to the use of Panogen or other fungicides to treat grain and seeds.

This type of contamination was considered owing to the presence of fluorescent stains on the outside of some used empty flour bags returned to the distributor. Panogen was sold containing a red colorant as a safety measure, to ensure that seeds coated with it would be used only for planting. Subsequent scientific tests showed that this coloring would not penetrate flour bags but that the active ingredient could do so. This would allow contamination of the flour, but it would appear to be limited to the bags. Further testing showed that if bread were to be baked using Panogen-contaminated flour, the rising of the bread could be partially or totally inhibited, depending on the concentration. This hypothesis was considered thoroughly in a French civil trial arising from the accident, with the contamination mechanism being a train wagon carrying flour that could have previously carried concentrated cylinders of Panogen intended for agricultural uses.[8] It was later discovered that pre-treating the seeds in Panogen could lead to mercury accumulation in the plants growing from those seeds. For this reason, Panogen, made by a Swedish company, was banned in Sweden in 1966. A revised version of the ban, in 1970, would prohibit the exportation of Panogen, leading to its removal from the market.

In 1982, a French researcher suggested Aspergillus fumigatus, a toxic fungus produced in grain silos, as a potential culprit.[13]

Historian Steven Kaplan’s 2008 book, Le Pain Maudit states that the poisoning might have been caused by nitrogen trichloride used to artificially (and illegally) bleach flour.

In his 2009 book, A Terrible Mistake, author and investigative journalist Hank P. Albarelli Jr claims that the Special Operations Division of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) tested the use of LSD on the population of Pont-Saint-Esprit as part of its MKNAOMI biological warfare program, in a field test called “Project SPAN”. According to Albarelli, this is based on CIA documents held in the US National Archives and a document supplied to the 1975 Rockefeller Commission that investigated CIA activities. Albarelli’s view was reported widely after the book’s publication, including by The Daily Telegraph, France 24 and BBC News. The attribution of the poisoning to the CIA in Albarelli’s book has been roundly criticized.[19] Historian Steven Kaplan, author of an earlier book about the events, said that this would be “clinically incoherent: LSD takes effects in just a few hours, whereas the inhabitants showed symptoms only after 36 hours or more. Furthermore, LSD does not cause the digestive ailments or the vegetative effects described by the townspeople.”

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1951_Pont-Saint-Esprit_mass_poisoning

Operation Sea-Spray (U.S. Navy secret biological warfare experiment using Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii bacteria)

Operation Sea-Spray was a 1950 U.S. Navy secret biological warfare experiment in which Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii bacteria were sprayed over the San Francisco Bay Area in California, in order to determine how vulnerable a city like San Francisco may be to a bioweapon attack.

Starting on September 20, 1950 and continuing until September 27, the U.S. Navy released the two types of bacteria from a ship off the shore of San Francisco, believing them to be harmless to humans. Based on results from monitoring equipment at 43 locations around the city, the Army determined that San Francisco had received enough of a dose for nearly all of the city’s 800,000 residents to inhale at least 5,000 of the particles.

Senate subcommittee hearings

In 1977, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research held a series of hearings at which the U.S. Army disclosed the existence of the tests. Army officials noted the pneumonia outbreak in their testimony but said any link to their experiments was totally coincidental. The Army pointed out that no other hospitals reported similar outbreaks and all 11 victims had urinary-tract infections following medical procedures, suggesting that the source of their infections lay inside the hospital.
Lawsuit

In 1981, Nevin’s surviving family members filed suit against the federal government, alleging negligence and responsibility for the death of Edward J. Nevin, as well as financial and emotional harm caused to Mr. Nevin’s wife from the medical costs.

The lower court ruled against them primarily because the bacteria used in the test was unproven to be responsible for Mr. Nevin’s death. The Nevin family appealed the suit all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which declined to overturn lower court judgments.

Similar biological warfare tests

In the Senate subcommittee hearings in 1977, the Army revealed:

Between 1949 and 1969, open-air tests of biological agents were conducted 239 times. In 80 of those experiments, the Army said it used live bacteria that its researchers at the time thought were harmless. In the others, it used inert chemicals to simulate bacteria.
In the 1950s, army researchers dispersed Serratia on Panama City and Key West Florida with no known illnesses resulting.
In the 1950s, army researchers dispersed zinc cadmium sulfide (now a known cancer-causing agent) over Minnesota and other Midwestern states to see how far they would spread in the atmosphere. The particles were detected more than 1,000 miles away in New York state.
Bacillus globigii, never shown to be harmful to people, was released in San Francisco, New York, Washington, D.C., and along the Pennsylvania Turnpike, among other places.
In New York, military researchers in 1966 spread Bacillus subtilis variant Niger, also believed to be harmless, in the subway system by dropping lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto tracks in stations in midtown Manhattan. The bacteria were carried for miles throughout the subway system. Army officials concluded in a January 1968 report that: “Similar covert attacks with a pathogenic disease-causing agent during peak traffic periods could be expected to expose large numbers of people to infection and subsequent illness or death.”
In a May 1965 secret release of Bacillus globigii at Washington’s National Airport and its Greyhound Lines bus terminal, more than 130 passengers were exposed to the bacteria traveling to 39 cities in seven states in the two weeks following the mock attack.

Source: Wikipeadia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea-Spray


Further References

Jim Carlton,Of Microbes and Mock Attacks: Years Ago, The Military Sprayed Germs on U.S. Cities, The Wall Street Journal. URL: www.wsj.com/articles/SB1003703226697496080

Bentley, Michelle. “The US has a history of testing biological weapons on the public – were infected ticks used too?”. The Conversation. URL: theconversation.com/the-us-has-a-history-of-testing-biological-weapons-on-the-public-were-infected-ticks-used-too-120638

David Rockefeller thanks the media

David Rockefeller addressed a Trilateral Commission meeting in 1991 with these words:

We are grateful to The Washington Post, The New York Times, Time Magazine, and other great publications, whose directors have attended our meetings and respected their promises of discretion for almost forty years. It would have been impossible for us to develop our plan for the world if we had been subject to the bright lights of publicity during those years.

(Kent 2005, p. 66)

Kent, Deirdre. 2005. Healthy Money Healthy Planet: Developing Sustainability Through New
Money Systems. Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton

See also

Smith, J., Karides, M., Becker, M., Brunelle, D., Chase-Dunn, C., & Della Porta, D.. (2015). Global Democracy and the World Social Forums. Global Democracy and the World Social Forums, 2nd Edition. Routledge

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4324/9781315636375
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Guzman-Concha, C.. (2012). Jackie Smith, Social Movements for Global Democracy. International Sociology, 27(5), 661–664.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0268580912452372c
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Swiss, L.. (2009). Jackie Smith, Social Movements for Global Democracy.. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 34(2), 518–520.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.29173/cjs6096
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Markoff, J.. (2010). Review of “Social Movements for Global Democracy,” by Jackie Smith. Journal of World-Systems Research, 310–315.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5195/jwsr.2010.443
DOI URL
directSciHub download