Abuse of authority by the UN: Sexual exploitation and abuse of children covered up

In reviewing the UN’s response to the Allegations on the ground, the Panel finds that the head of HRJS and the SRSG of MINUSCA both committed an abuse of authority. As head of the mission and the most senior UN official in CAR, the SRSG of MINUSCA was the person most able to intervene with officials to hold the perpetrators accountable and to stop the abuses from reoccurring. Yet despite being made aware of the Allegations on a number of occasions, he took no steps to ensure that follow up occurred. The security situation in CAR and the absence of clear guidelines with respect to non-UN command troops provide some context to the SRSG’s conduct. However, they do not justify his persistent failure to take action in the face of the seriousness of the Allegations. Rather, his failure to take steps to prevent the sexual abuse of children or to ensure the accountability of the perpetrators was a total abdication of his responsibility to uphold human rights in the implementation of MINUSCA’s mandate. Similarly, the actions of the head of HRJS show an outright disregard for his obligations as head of the human rights component of the UN mission in CAR. For example, he neither considered that protection of the children at risk was his responsibility nor acknowledged that the Allegations brought to light what could potentially be systematic violations which required urgent action to halt further abuse, identify the perpetrators, and ensure that they were held accountable. He also failed to follow up with other children who were allegedly abused. Instead, he appears to have been preoccupied by the political sensitivity of the Allegations.
Taking Action on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers

Humes’ is-ought problem

The is–ought problem, as articulated by the Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume, arises when one makes claims about what ought to be that are based solely on statements about what is. Hume found that there seems to be a significant difference between descriptive or positive statements (about what is) and prescriptive or normative statements (about what ought to be), and that it is not obvious how one can coherently move from descriptive statements to prescriptive ones. Hume’s law or Hume’s guillotine, is the thesis that, if a reasoner only has access to non-moral and non-evaluative factual premises, the reasoner cannot logically infer the truth of moral statements.

A similar view is defended by G. E. Moore‘s open-question argument, intended to refute any identification of moral properties with natural properties. This so-called naturalistic fallacy stands in contrast to the views of ethical naturalists.

The is–ought problem is closely related to the fact–value distinction in epistemology.

Further References

Mooya, M.. (2022). Hume’s guillotine – the ‘is-ought’ problem in property valuation theory. Journal of Property Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/09599916.2021.1918222
directSciHub download

Spielthenner, G.. (2017). The Is-Ought Problem in Practical Ethics. HEC Forum

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s10730-016-9318-8
directSciHub download

Hapla, M.. (2020). Justification of human rights and is-ought problem. Casopis pro Pravni Vedu a Praxi

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5817/CPVP2020-1-3
directSciHub download

Pigden, C.. (2001). The Is-Ought Problem: An Investigation in Philosophical Logic. Australasian Journal of Philosophy

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/713659291
directSciHub download

Iwasa, N.. (2011). Sentimentalism and the is-ought problem. Croatian Journal of Philosophy
de Vries, R.. (2011). The Uses and Abuses of Moral Theory in Bioethics. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s10677-011-9290-y
directSciHub download

Sisk, B. A., Mozersky, J., Antes, A. L., & DuBois, J. M.. (2020). The “Ought-Is” Problem: An Implementation Science Framework for Translating Ethical Norms Into Practice. American Journal of Bioethics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/15265161.2020.1730483
directSciHub download

Hormesis in toxicology

Hormesis is a characteristic of many biological processes, namely a biphasic or triphasic response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition. Within the hormetic zone, the biological response to low exposures to toxins and other stressors is generally favorable. The term “hormesis” comes from Greek hórmēsis “rapid motion, eagerness”, itself from ancient Greek hormáein “to set in motion, impel, urge on”, the same Greek root as the word hormone. The term ‘hormetics’ has been proposed for the study and science of hormesis.

In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response phenomenon to xenobiotics or other stressors characterized by a low-dose stimulation, with zero dose and high-dose inhibition, thus resulting in a J-shaped or an inverted U-shaped dose response (e.g. the arms of the “U” are inhibitory or toxic concentrations whereas the curve region stimulates a beneficial response.) Generally speaking, hormesis pertains to the study of benefits of exposure to toxins such as radiation or mercury (perhaps analogous to health paradoxes such as the smoker’s paradox, although differing by virtue of dose-dependent effects). Microdosing, and to some extent homeopathy, are often regarded as applications of hormesis.

In physiology and nutrition, hormesis can be visualized as a hormetic curve with regions of deficiency, homeostasis, and toxicity. Physiological concentrations deviating above or below homeostasis concentrations adversely affects an organism, thus in this context, the hormetic zone is synonymously known as the region of homeostasis. In pharmacology the hormetic zone is similar to the therapeutic window. Some psychological or environmental factors that would seem to produce positive responses have also been termed “eustress”.

In the context of toxicology, the hormesis model of dose response is vigorously debated.The biochemical mechanisms by which hormesis works (particularly in applied cases pertaining to behavior and toxins) remain under early laboratory research and are not well understood. The notion that hormesis is an important policy factor for chemical risk regulations is not widely accepted.

Further References

Calabrese, E. J., & Baldwin, L. A.. (2002). Defining hormesis. Human and Experimental Toxicology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1191/0960327102ht217oa
directSciHub download

Mattson, M. P.. (2008). Hormesis defined. Ageing Research Reviews

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2007.08.007
directSciHub download

Ullman, D.. (2021). Exploring Possible Mechanisms of Hormesis and Homeopathy in the Light of Nanopharmacology and Ultra-High Dilutions. Dose-Response

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/15593258211022983
directSciHub download

Calabrese, E. J.. (2014). Hormesis: A fundamental concept in biology. Microbial Cell

Plain numerical DOI: 10.15698/mic2014.05.145
directSciHub download

Calabrese, E. J.. (2020). Hormesis and ginseng: Ginseng mixtures and individual constituents commonly display hormesis dose responses, especially for neuroprotective effects. Molecules

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112719
directSciHub download

Mcclure, C. D., Zhong, W., Hunt, V. L., Chapman, F. M., Hill, F. V., & Priest, N. K.. (2014). Hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity. Evolution

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/evo.12453
directSciHub download

Zimmermann, A., Bauer, M. A., Kroemer, G., Madeo, F., & Carmona-Gutierrez, D.. (2014). When less is more: Hormesis against stress and disease. Microbial Cell

Plain numerical DOI: 10.15698/mic2014.05.148
directSciHub download

Calabrese, E. J., & Mattson, M. P.. (2017). How does hormesis impact biology, toxicology, and medicine?. Npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41514-017-0013-z
directSciHub download

Calabrese, E. J.. (2018). Hormesis: Path and progression to significance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/ijms19102871
directSciHub download

Brain Science from Bench to Battlefield: The Realities – and Risks – of Neuroweapons | CGSR Seminar

Dr. James Giordano: clinicalbioethics.georgetown.edu/jgiordano/

Further References

Year Citation Score
2020 DeFranco J, Rhemann M, Giordano J. The Emerging Neurobioeconomy: Implications for National Security. Health Security. 18: 267-277. PMID 32816585 DOI: 10.1089/Hs.2020.0009 0.322
2020 Ramirez-Zamora A, Giordano J, Gunduz A, Alcantara J, Cagle JN, Cernera S, Difuntorum P, Eisinger RS, Gomez J, Long S, Parks B, Wong JK, Chiu S, Patel B, Grill WM, et al. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Neurophysiology, Adaptive DBS, Virtual Reality, Neuroethics and Technology. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 14: 54. PMID 32292333 DOI: 10.3389/Fnhum.2020.00054 0.33
2019 Shook JR, Giordano J. Ethical Contexts for the Future of Neuroethics. Ajob Neuroscience. 10: 134-136. PMID 31361203 DOI: 10.1080/21507740.2019.1632969 0.328
2018 Giordano J. Looking Ahead: The Importance of Views, Values, and Voices in Neuroethics-Now. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 27: 728-731. PMID 30198475 DOI: 10.1017/S096318011800021X 0.355
2017 Kraft CJ, Giordano J. Integrating Brain Science and Law: Neuroscientific Evidence and Legal Perspectives on Protecting Individual Liberties. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 11: 621. PMID 29167633 DOI: 10.3389/Fnins.2017.00621 0.344
2017 Akram F, Giordano J. Research Domain Criteria as Psychiatric Nosology. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 26: 592-601. PMID 28937340 DOI: 10.1017/S096318011700010X 0.34
2017 DiEuliis D, Giordano J. Why Gene Editors Like CRISPR/Cas May Be a Game-Changer for Neuroweapons. Health Security. 15: 296-302. PMID 28574731 DOI: 10.1089/Hs.2016.0120 0.336
2017 Becker K, Shook JR, Darragh M, Giordano J. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: Part 4 – Ethical issues in clinical and social applications of neuroscience. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : Pehm. 12: 1. PMID 28569221 DOI: 10.1186/S13010-017-0043-Y 0.371
2017 Giordano J, Bikson M, Kappenman ES, Clark VP, Coslett HB, Hamblin MR, Hamilton R, Jankord R, Kozumbo WJ, McKinley RA, Nitsche MA, Reilly JP, Richardson J, Wurzman R, Calabrese E. Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Dose-Response : a Publication of International Hormesis Society. 15: 1559325816685467. PMID 28210202 DOI: 10.1177/1559325816685467 0.329
2016 Wurzman R, Yaden D, Giordano J. Neuroscience Fiction as Eidolá: Social Reflection and Neuroethical Obligations in Depictions of Neuroscience in Film. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 1-21. PMID 27852344 DOI: 10.1017/S0963180116000578 0.313
2016 Martin A, Becker K, Darragh M, Giordano J. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 3 – “second tradition neuroethics” – ethical issues in neuroscience. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : Pehm. 11: 7. PMID 27646569 DOI: 10.1186/S13010-016-0037-1 0.335
2016 Giordano J. Commentary: The Value of Patient Benefit: Consideration of Framing Contingencies to Guide the Ethical Use of DBS-a Case Analysis. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 25: 755-8. PMID 27634728 DOI: 10.1017/S0963180116000530 0.317
2016 Shats K, Brindley T, Giordano J. Don’t Ask a Neuroscientist about Phases of the Moon. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 25: 712-25. PMID 27634722 DOI: 10.1017/S0963180116000438 0.352
2016 Giordano J. Toward an Operational Neuroethical Risk Analysis and Mitigation Paradigm for Emerging Neuroscience and Technology (NeuroS/T). Experimental Neurology. PMID 27468658 DOI: 10.1016/J.Expneurol.2016.07.016 0.319
2016 Armon E, Kohls NB, Giordano J. On the viability of neurotechnology and mind–body methods in pediatric mental health: Perspectives on integrating new tools to complement old techniques European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 8: 137-140. DOI: 10.1016/J.Eujim.2015.12.011 0.33
2015 Shook JR, Giordano J. Principled research ethics in practice? Reflections for neuroethics and bioethics. Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior. 71: 423-6. PMID 25935658 DOI: 10.1016/J.Cortex.2015.03.017 0.304
2015 Giordano J, Shook JR. Minding Brain Science in Medicine: On the Need for Neuroethical Engagement for Guidance of Neuroscience in Clinical Contexts Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal. 6: 37-41. DOI: 10.1615/Ethicsbiologyengmed.2015015333 0.315
2014 Buniak L, Darragh M, Giordano J. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 1: overview and reviews–defining and describing the field and its practices. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : Pehm. 9: 9. PMID 24885037 DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-9-9 0.344
2014 Loveless SE, Giordano J. Neuroethics, painience, and neurocentric criteria for the moral treatment of animals. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 23: 163-72. PMID 24495713 DOI: 10.1017/S0963180113000698 0.322
2014 Giordano J, Kulkarni A, Farwell J. Deliver us from evil? The temptation, realities, and neuroethico-legal issues of employing assessment neurotechnologies in public safety initiatives. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. 35: 73-89. PMID 24442931 DOI: 10.1007/S11017-014-9278-4 0.317
2014 Shook JR, Giordano J. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : Pehm. 9: 1. PMID 24387102 DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-9-1 0.344
2014 Rossi PJ, Okun M, Giordano J. Translational Imperatives in Deep Brain Stimulation Research: Addressing Neuroethical Issues of Consequences and Continuity of Clinical Care Ajob Neuroscience. 5: 46-48. DOI: 10.1080/21507740.2013.863248 0.311
2013 Giordano J. Ethical considerations in the globalization of medicine–an interview with James Giordano. Bmc Medicine. 11: 69. PMID 23496884 DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-69 0.307
2013 Giordano J, Rossi PJ, Benedikter R. Addressing the Quantitative and Qualitative: A View to Complementarity—From the Synaptic to the Social Open Journal of Philosophy. 3: 1-5. DOI: 10.4236/Ojpp.2013.34A001 0.358
2013 Rossi PJ, Novotny P, Paulick P, Plischke H, Kohls NB, Giordano J. Decision Technologies in Medical Research and Practice: Practical Considerations, Ethical Implications, and the Need for Dialectic Evaluation Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine. 4: 91-102. DOI: 10.1615/Ethicsbiologyengmed.2013008091 0.305
2013 Giordano J. Unpacking neuroscience and neurotechnology – Instructions not included: Neuroethics required Neuroethics. 6: 411-414. DOI: 10.1007/S12152-011-9150-4 0.373
2012 Kawa S, Giordano J. A brief historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: issues and implications for the future of psychiatric canon and practice. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : Pehm. 7: 2. PMID 22243976 DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-7-2 0.331
2011 Jotterand F, Giordano J. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation and personal identity: ethical questions, and neuroethical approaches for medical practice. International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 23: 476-85. PMID 22200137 DOI: 10.3109/09540261.2011.616189 0.316
2011 Kohls N, Sauer S, Offenbächer M, Giordano J. Spirituality: an overlooked predictor of placebo effects? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 366: 1838-48. PMID 21576141 DOI: 10.1098/Rstb.2010.0389 0.34
2011 Giordano J, Benedikter R. The shifting architectonics of pain medicine: toward ethical realignment of scientific, medical and market values for the emerging global community–groundwork for policy. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.). 12: 406-14. PMID 21332927 DOI: 10.1111/J.1526-4637.2011.01055.X 0.335
2010 Benedikter R, Giordano J, Fitzgerald K. The future of the self-image of the human being in the Age of Transhumanism, Neurotechnology and Global Transition Futures. 42: 1102-1109. DOI: 10.1016/J.Futures.2010.08.010 0.313
2010 Giordano J, Hutchison PJ, Benedikter RAJ. Culture, Sustainability, and Medicine in the Twenty-first Century. Re-grounding the Focus of Medicine Amidst the Current “Global Systemic Shift” and the Forces of the Market: Elements for a Contemporary Social Philosophy of Medicine International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society. 23: 29-41. DOI: 10.1007/S10767-009-9085-5 0.313
2009 Giordano J, Akhouri R, McBride D. Implantable nano-neurotechnological devices: consideration of ethical, legal, and social issues and implications. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 19: 83-93. PMID 20402632 DOI: 10.1615/Jlongtermeffmedimplants.V19.I1.80 0.321
2009 Giordano J. Quo vadis? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine preserving the humanistic character of medicine in a biotechnological future. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : Pehm. 4: 12. PMID 19682382 DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-4-12 0.401
2009 Giordano J, Engebretson JC, Benedikter R. Culture, subjectivity, and the ethics of patient-centered pain care. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics : Cq : the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees. 18: 47-56. PMID 19091145 DOI: 10.1017/S0963180108090087 0.306
2009 Loveless S, Giordano J. Erlebnis, Erwartung und Ethik (Experience, Expectation, and Ethics) Neuroethics. 2: 113-113. DOI: 10.1007/S12152-009-9035-Y 0.359
2008 Giordano J, Ives JA, Jonas WB. Hormetic responses in neural systems: consideration, contexts, and caveats. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 38: 623-7. PMID 18709570 DOI: 10.1080/10408440802026356 0.31
2008 Giordano J. Complementarity, brain-mind, and pain. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006). 15: 71-3. PMID 18496019 DOI: 10.1159/000121106 0.317
2007 Ives JA, Giordano J. Unusual claims, normative process: on the use and stringency of the scientific method. Complementary Medicine Research. 14: 138-139. PMID 17596693 DOI: 10.1159/000103287 0.339
2007 Giordano J, O’Reilly M, Taylor H, Dogra N. Confidentiality and Autonomy: The Challenge(s) of Offering Research Participants a Choice of Disclosing Their Identity Qualitative Health Research. 17: 264-275. PMID 17220396 DOI: 10.1177/1049732306297884 0.331
2006 Giordano J, Engebretson J. Neural and cognitive basis of spiritual experience: biopsychosocial and ethical implications for clinical medicine. Explore (New York, N.Y.). 2: 216-25. PMID 16781644 DOI: 10.1016/J.Explore.2006.02.002 0.339
2005 Giordano J, Engebretson J, Garcia MK. Challenges to complementary and alternative medical research: focal issues influencing integration into a cancer care model. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 4: 210-8. PMID 16113028 DOI: 10.1177/1534735405279179 0.33
2004 Giordano J, Garcia MK, Strickland G. Integrating Chinese traditional medicine into a U.S. public health paradigm Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 10: 706-710. PMID 15353031 DOI: 10.1089/Acm.2004.10.706 0.336
2003 Giordano J, Garcia MK, Boatwright D, Klein K. Complementary and alternative medicine in mainstream public health: A role for research in fostering integration Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 9: 441-445. PMID 12816632 DOI: 10.1089/107555303765551660 0.321

Neuroweapons & neurohacking (dual-use neuroscience)

Janus, Roman god of gates, doorways, beginnings, and endings, and Bellona, Roman goddess of war. Sculpture by Johann Wilhelm Beyer, 1773-80 CE, Vienna, Schönbrunn Garden.


Why Gene Editors Like CRISPR/Cas May Be a Game-Changer for Neuroweapons

“This year marks the Eighth Review Conference (RevCon) of the Biological Toxins and Weapons Convention (BWC). At the same time, ongoing international efforts to further and more deeply investigate the brain’s complex neuronal circuitry are creating unprecedented capabilities to both understand and control neurological processes of thought, emotion, and behavior. These advances have tremendous promise for human health, but the potential for their misuse has also been noted, with most discussions centering on research and development of agents that are addressed by existing BWC and Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) proscriptions. In this article, we discuss the dual-use possibilities fostered by employing emergent biotechnologic techniques and tools—specifically, novel gene editors like clustered regular interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)—to produce neuroweapons. Based on our analyses, we posit the strong likelihood that development of genetically modified or created neurotropic substances will advance apace with other gene-based therapeutics, and we assert that this represents a novel—and realizable—path to creating potential neuroweapons. In light of this, we propose that it will be important to re-address current categorizations of weaponizable tools and substances, so as to better inform and generate tractable policy to enable improved surveillance and governance of novel neuroweapons.
The authors discuss the dual-use possibilities fostered by employing emergent biotechnologic techniques and tools—specifically, novel gene editors like clustered regular interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)—to produce neuroweapons. They posit the strong likelihood that development of genetically modified or created neurotropic substances will advance apace with other gene-based therapeutics and assert that this represents a novel—and realizable—path to creating potential neuroweapons.”
[…] “In the interim, it is likely that more indirect means of manipulating the brain and behavior will be developed. ‘‘Neurohacking’’ will increase, and biotechnology, such as CRISPR/Cas and novel gene editors, will provide tools to realize production of novel neuroagents with dual-use po-
tential. Simple acknowledgment of these facts, however, is insufficient. It will be essential to pursue and obtain a deeper and fuller understanding of the ways that genetic pathways to human cognitive and behavioral modification can be engaged for dual and direct use as neuroweapons, to
formulate policies based on this level of understanding, and to engage surveillance of the use of these technologies in various silos of development and application, so as to afford both preventive and more preparatory capabilities.”

DiEuliis, D., & Giordano, J.. (2017). Why Gene Editors Like CRISPR/Cas May Be a Game-Changer for Neuroweapons. Health Security, 15(3), 296–302.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1089/hs.2016.0120
directSciHub download

Janus and his two faces: past and future.

“There is a scientific race for decoding the human brain. current and near future technology will make it possible to not only merely influence the enemy’s mind and behavior, but to actually control it. breakthroughs in neuroscience will enable new types of non-lethal weapons for precise behavioral manipulation, for example through behavior-altering neurotropic drugs, through remote electromagnetic brain monitoring and stimulation, through acoustic weapons beaming voices directly into enemy heads, and even through holographic projections and other ‘complex battlefield illusions.’ within ten years soldiers could be equipped with transcranial magnetic stimulation devices or brain-computer interfaces, which would make it possible for their commanders to steer their emotions and to control their thoughts. this paper will discuss how the emerging sixth domain of warfare (the mind) is likely to transform military operations and profoundly change how wars are conducted. it is argued that military operations will be increasingly centered on achieving desired psychological effects, which will, on the positive side, reduce the need for physical destruction and killing. at the same time, ‘neuroweapons’ will also create new and unprecedented dangers, resulting from misuse and proliferation, which will need to be addressed through development of a concept of ‘neurosecurity’ that will be outlined.”

Krishnan, A.. (2014). From Psyops to Neurowar: What Are the Dangers?. Paper to Be Presented at the ISAC-ISSS Conference in Austin, 14-16 November 2014

Further References

Bruner, R. C., & Lentzos, F.. (2019). Militarising the Mind: Assessing the Weapons of the Ultimate Battlefield. BioSocieties

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1057/s41292-018-0121-4
directSciHub download

Evans, N. G.. (2021). Neuroweapons. In The Ethics of Neuroscience and National Security

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4324/9780429447259-6
directSciHub download

Dando, M.. (2015). Neuroscience and the Future of Chemical-Biological Weapons. Neuroscience and the Future of Chemical-Biological Weapons

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1057/9781137381828
directSciHub download

Dando, M.. (2015). Novel Neuroweapons. In Neuroscience and the Future of Chemical-Biological Weapons

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1057/9781137381828_6
directSciHub download

Giordano, J. J.. (2015). Neurotechnology in National Security and Defense: Practical Considerations, Neuroethical Concerns. Advances in neurotechnology
Dando, M.. (2015). Novel Neuroweapons. In Neuroscience and the Future of Chemical-Biological Weapons

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1057/9781137381828.0013
directSciHub download

Giordano, J., & Wurzman, R.. (2011). Neurotechnologies as weapons in national intelligence and defense – An overview. Neurogenetics
Noll, G.. (2014). Weaponising neurotechnology: International humanitarian law and the loss of language. London Review of International Law

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/lril/lru009
directSciHub download

DeFranco, J., DiEuliis, D., & Giordano, J.. (2020). Redefining Neuroweapons: Emerging Capabilities in Neuroscience and Neurotechnology. PRISM
Nørgaard, K., & Linden-Vørnle, M.. (2021). Cyborgs, Neuroweapons, and Network Command. Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.31374/sjms.86
directSciHub download

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defense operations. HDIAC Journal 2017;3(4).
29. Scaife MA, Smith GS. Towards developing algal synthetic
biology. Biochem Soc Trans 2016;44(3):716-722.
30. Ramus F. Genes, brain, and cognition: a roadmap for the
cognitive scientist. Cognition 101 2006;2:274-269

In vivo gene editing

“In vivo gene editing in post-mitotic neurons of the adult brain may be a useful strategy for treating neurological diseases. Here, we develop CRISPR–Cas9 nanocomplexes and show they were effective in the adult mouse brain, with minimal off-target effects. Using this system to target Bace1 suppressed amyloid beta (Aβ)-associated pathologies and cognitive deficits in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. These results broaden the potential application of CRISPR–Cas9 systems to neurodegenerative diseases.”

Park, H., Oh, J., Shim, G., Cho, B., Chang, Y., Kim, S., … Kim, J.. (2019). In vivo neuronal gene editing via CRISPR–Cas9 amphiphilic nanocomplexes alleviates deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41593-019-0352-0
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Further References

Gillmore, J. D., Gane, E., Taubel, J., Kao, J., Fontana, M., Maitland, M. L., … Lebwohl, D.. (2021). CRISPR-Cas9 In Vivo Gene Editing for Transthyretin Amyloidosis. New England Journal of Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1056/nejmoa2107454
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Mills, E. M., Barlow, V. L., Luk, L. Y. P., & Tsai, Y. H.. (2020). Applying switchable Cas9 variants to in vivo gene editing for therapeutic applications. Cell Biology and Toxicology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s10565-019-09488-2
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Park, H., Oh, J., Shim, G., Cho, B., Chang, Y., Kim, S., … Kim, J.. (2019). In vivo neuronal gene editing via CRISPR–Cas9 amphiphilic nanocomplexes alleviates deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41593-019-0352-0
directSciHub download

Jordan, B.. (2021). In vivo gene editing for gene therapy. Medecine/Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1051/medsci/2021140
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Yip, B. H.. (2020). Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 delivery strategies. Biomolecules

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/biom10060839
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Büning, H., & Schambach, A.. (2021). A first step toward in vivo gene editing in patients. Nature Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41591-021-01476-6
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Latella, M. C., Di Salvo, M. T., Cocchiarella, F., Benati, D., Grisendi, G., Comitato, A., … Recchia, A.. (2016). In vivo Editing of the Human Mutant Rhodopsin Gene by Electroporation of Plasmid-based CRISPR/Cas9 in the Mouse Retina. Molecular Therapy – Nucleic Acids

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/mtna.2016.92
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Li, F., Wing, K., Wang, J. H., Luu, C. D., Bender, J. A., Chen, J., … Hewitt, A. W.. (2020). Comparison of CRISPR/Cas Endonucleases for in vivo Retinal Gene Editing. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2020.570917
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Lee, J., Kang, Y. K., Oh, E., Jeong, J., Im, S. H., Kim, D. K., … Chung, H. J.. (2022). Nano-assembly of a Chemically Tailored Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein for in Vivo Gene Editing and Cancer Immunotherapy. Chemistry of Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c02844
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Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, nanogels and capsules for integrated multifunctional intelligent systems (Review, 2010)

In this review we provide an analysis of recent literature reports on the synthesis and applications of stimuli-responsive polymeric and hybrid nanostructured particles in a range of sizes from nanometers to a few micrometers: nano- and microgels, core–shell structures, polymerosomes, block-copolymer micelles, and more complex architectures. The review consists of two major parts: synthesis and applications of nanoparticles in colloidal dispersions, thin films, delivery devices and sensors. We also broadly discuss potential directions for further developments of this research area.

Motornov, M., Roiter, Y., Tokarev, I., & Minko, S.. (2010). Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, nanogels and capsules for integrated multifunctional intelligent systems. Progress in Polymer Science, 35(1–2), 174–211.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.10.004
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Buwalda, S. J., Boere, K. W. M., Dijkstra, P. J., Feijen, J., Vermonden, T., & Hennink, W. E.. (2014). Hydrogels in a historical perspective: From simple networks to smart materials. Journal of Controlled Release, 190, 254–273.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.03.052
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See also:
Fluorescent probe-encapsulated smart nanohydrogel to enhance sensitivity toward hydrogen peroxide in living cells (Publication Date, Feb. 2023)

  • Advances in the development of cyclodextrin-based nanogels/microgels for biomedical applications: Drug delivery and beyond 2022, Carbohydrate Polymers
  • Formation of ultrathin scarf-like micelles, ultrathin disk-like micelles and spherical micelles by self-assembly of polyurethane diblock copolymers 2022, Journal of Molecular Liquids
  • Inorganic/organic hybrid nanoparticles synthesized in a two-step radiation-driven process 2022, Radiation Physics and Chemistry
  • The influence of the functional end groups on the properties of polylactide-based materials 2022, Progress in Polymer Science
  • How molecular interactions tune the characteristic time of nanocomposite colloidal sensors 2022, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

Alfred Kinsey – Sexual behavior in children (empirical sexology)

Alfred Kinsey and the Kinsey Institute have caused the direct and indirect abuse of thousands of children since the publishing of his first books on human sexuality. Kinsey experimented with 2-month-old babies. In addition, a 4-year-old child reportedly had 26 orgasms in 24 hours. This is an all day, all night experiment involving sexual experimentation/torture on children. Kinsey received many awards and even appeared on the cover of Time magazine when the second book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, was published was published in 1953. The media coverage was unprecedented for a book (Gathorne-Hardy, 1998) and has probably only been surpassed in modern times by J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series. Over the decades, Kinsey’s books, his his sexual study, his research team, his Institute for Sexual Research and and more recently the film about his life, have all been the subject of considerable controversy, admiration and anger.

“If a child were not culturally conditioned, it is doubtful if it would be disturbed by sexual approaches…It is difficult to understand why a child, except for its cultural conditioning, should be disturbed at having its genitalia touched, or disturbed at seeing the genitalia of other person, or disturbed at even more specific sexual contacts”
~ Alfred Kinsey, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, p. 120-22

“There are, of course, instances of adults who have done physical damage to children with whom they have attempted sexual contacts…But these cases are in the minority, and the public should learn to distinguish such serious contacts from other adult contacts which are not likely to do the child any appreciable harm if the child’s parents do not become disturbed.
~ Alfred Kinsey, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, p. 120-22

Chapter 5 of Alfred Kinsey’s Sexual Behaviour In The Human Male (1948) is entitled “Early Sexual Growth and Activity”. Included within it are the details of sexual experiments involving between 317 and 1,7461 male children 2, 5 months to 14 years old.
2. These experiments involved “manual and oral stimulation” of the children’s genitals by adults. In a detailed table entitled “Examples of Multiple Orgasms in Pre-Adolescent Males” [Table 34], Kinsey detailed the time taken by the babies and children to achieve “multiple orgasms”. The timings were made with a stopwatch.

mc kinsey

See also: Tate, T. (Producer). (1998). Secret History: Kinsey’s Paedophiles [Television series episode]. Yorkshire Television.

Abstract: Following on from the discussion on ‘making sense’ of paedophilia through historical, cross-cultural and cross-species examples, this chapter now turns to one specific body of data and analysis developed by the biologist Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues at Indiana University and set out in a key text published in 1948, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Since its first publication, Kinsey’s work has been the focus of controversy and misinterpretation and it is therefore essential to return to this famous but little-read original source-material for analysis. The impact that this work has had on modern Western society has been profound, and the extraordinary fame of Kinsey’s study on sexual behaviour has recently been revived in the popular imagination by the Hollywood biopic Kinsey (2004), written and directed by Bill Condon and starring Liam Neeson and Laura Linney. The unique data from Kinsey’s survey of sexual behaviour — and the manner in which they were published and discussed both in Kinsey’s original book and in Condon’s film almost sixty years later — not only provide us with a lens through which to examine changes in attitude to the idea of adult-child sexual contact but also show us how such changes in attitude were effected.

Goode, S. D.. (2011). ‘Early Sexual Growth and Activity’: The Influence of Kinsey. In Paedophiles in Society (pp. 86–125). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1057/9780230306745_4
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Further References

Escoffier, J.. (2020). Kinsey, psychoanalysis and the theory of sexuality. Sexologies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.sexol.2020.03.005
directSciHub download

Bullough, V. L.. (1998). Alfred kinsey and the kinsey report: Historical overview and lasting contributions. Journal of Sex Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/00224499809551925
directSciHub download

Fairyington, S.. (2008). Kinsey, bisexuality, and the case against Dualism. Journal of Bisexuality

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/15299710802501876
directSciHub download

Drucker, D. J.. (2010). Male sexuality and Alfred Kinsey’s 0-6 scale: Toward “a sound understanding of the realities of sex”. Journal of Homosexuality

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/00918369.2010.508314
directSciHub download

Amazon Web Services Cloud Platform: Termes of service 42.10

Clause 42.10 of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) terms of service states:

42.10. Acceptable Use; Safety-Critical Systems. Your use of the Lumberyard Materialsmust comply with the AWS Acceptable Use Policy. The Lumberyard Materials are not intended for use with life-critical or safety-critical systems, such as use in operation of medical equipment, automated transportation systems, autonomous vehicles, aircraft or air traffic control, nuclear facilities, manned spacecraft, or military use in connection with live combat. However, this restriction will not apply in the event of the occurrence (certified by the United States Centers for Disease Control or successor body) of a widespread viral infection transmitted via bites or contact with bodily fluids that causes human corpses to reanimate and seek to consume living human flesh, blood, brain or nerve tissue and is likely to result in the fall of organized civilization.

Amazon changed the terms of service. However, the older version from August 2022 can be found in the internet Archive (wayback machine):
Amazon Lumberyard is a now-superseded freeware cross-platform game engine developed by Amazon and based on CryEngine (initially released in 2002), which was licensed from Crytek in 2015. In July 2021, Amazon and the Linux Foundation announced that parts of the engine would be used to create a new open source game engine called Open 3D Engine, which would replace it. A new Open 3D Foundation, run by the Linux Foundation, will manage the new engine, which will be licensed under the open source Apache 2.0 license. The new engine is reportedly partially based on Lumberyard but with many parts rewritten, and is considered a new engine. The Lumberyard engine features integration with Amazon Web Services to allow developers to build or host their games on Amazon’s servers, as well as support for livestreaming via Twitch. Additionally, the engine includes Twitch ChatPlay, allowing viewers of the Twitch stream to influence the game through the associated chat, a method of play inspired by the Twitch Plays Pokémon phenomenon. The source code is available to end users with limitations: Users may not publicly release the Lumberyard engine source code or use it to release their own game engine. Lumberyard launched on February 9, 2016 alongside GameLift, a fee-based managed service for deploying and hosting multiplayer games, intended to allow developers the easy development of games that attract “large and vibrant communities of fans.”[14] As of March 2018, the software is currently in beta status and can be used to build games for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One, with limited support for iOS and Android and support for macOS being planned for future releases. Virtual reality integration was added in Beta 1.3, allowing developers to build games supporting devices like Oculus Rift and HTC Vive.Despite being based on the architecture of Crytek’s CryEngine, the engine has been developed to use many of its own custom-developed systems, some of which are in a preview mode. A few of these systems include the Component Entity System, Fur Shader, Modular Gems (which allows developers to either create their own assets or add existing assets to their games), and the Script Canvas.