Multilingual AI translation:

The internet of bodies

“The Internet of Bodies (IoBs) is an imminent extension to the vast Internet of Things domain, where interconnected devices (e.g., worn, implanted, embedded, swallowed, etc.) are located in-on-and-around the human body form a network. Thus, the IoB can enable a myriad of services and applications for a wide range of sectors, including medicine, safety, security, wellness, entertainment, to name but a few. Especially, considering the recent health and economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus pandemic, also known as COVID-19, the IoB can revolutionize today’s public health and safety infrastructure. Nonetheless, reaping the full benefit of IoB is still subject to addressing related risks, concerns, and challenges. Hence, this survey first outlines the IoB requirements and related communication and networking standards. Considering the lossy and heterogeneous dielectric properties of the human body, one of the major technical challenges is characterizing the behavior of the communication links in-on-and-around the human body. Therefore, this article presents a systematic survey of channel modeling issues for various link types of human body communication (HBC) channels below 100 MHz, the narrowband (NB) channels between 400 and 2.5 GHz, and ultrawideband (UWB) channels from 3 to 10 GHz. After explaining bio-electromagnetics attributes of the human body, physical, and numerical body phantoms are presented along with electromagnetic propagation tool models. Then, the first-order and the second-order channel statistics for NB and UWB channels are covered with a special emphasis on body posture, mobility, and antenna effects. For capacitively, galvanically, and magnetically coupled HBC channels, four different channel modeling methods (i.e., analytical, numerical, circuit, and empirical) are investigated, and electrode effects are discussed. Finally, interested readers are provided with open research challenges and potential future research directions.”

Celik, A., Salama, K. N., & Eltawil, A. M.. (2022). The Internet of Bodies: A Systematic Survey on Propagation Characterization and Channel Modeling. IEEE Internet of Things Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3098028
DOI URL
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Lee, M., Boudreaux, B., Chaturvedi, R., Romanosky, S., & Downing, B.. (2020). The Internet of Bodies: Opportunities, Risks, and Governance. The Internet of Bodies: Opportunities, Risks, and Governance

Plain numerical DOI: 10.7249/rr3226
DOI URL
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Makitalo, N., Flores-Martin, D., Berrocal, J., Garcia-Alonso, J., Ihantola, P., Ometov, A., … Mikkonen, T.. (2020). The Internet of Bodies Needs a Human Data Model. IEEE Internet Computing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/MIC.2020.3019920
DOI URL
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Boddington, G.. (2021). The Internet of Bodies—alive, connected and collective: the virtual physical future of our bodies and our senses. AI and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00146-020-01137-1
DOI URL
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Blake, M. B., Kandasamy, N., Dustdar, S., & Liu, X.. (2020). Internet of Bodies/Internet of Sports. IEEE Internet Computing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/MIC.2020.3026924
DOI URL
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Ray, P. P.. (2020). Intelligent Ingestibles: Future of Internet of Body. IEEE Internet Computing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/MIC.2020.3023484
DOI URL
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El-Khoury, M., & Arikan, C. L.. (2021). From the internet of things toward the internet of bodies: Ethical and legal considerations. Strategic Change

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/jsc.2411
DOI URL
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