On ‘modified human agents’: John Lilly and the paranoid style in American neuroscience

Williams, C.. (2019). On ‘modified human agents’: John Lilly and the paranoid style in American neuroscience. History of the Human Sciences, 32(5), 84–107.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0952695119872094
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This article was adapted from a chapter of the PhD thesis Battles for the Mind: Brainwashing Altered States and the Politics of the Nervous System (1945-1970), completed at Birkbeck in 2018.

Abstract
The personal papers of the neurophysiologist John C. Lilly at Stanford University hold a classified paper he wrote in the late 1950s on the behavioural modification and control of ‘human agents’. The paper provides an unnerving prognosis of the future application of Lilly’s research, then being carried out at the National Institute of Mental Health. Lilly claimed that the use of sensory isolation, electrostimulation of the brain, and the recording and mapping of brain activity could be used to gain ‘push-button’ control over motivation and behaviour. This research, wrote Lilly, could eventually lead to ‘master- slave controls directly of one brain over another’. The paper is an explicit example of
Lilly’s preparedness to align his research towards Cold War military aims. It is not, however, the research for which Lilly is best known. During the 1960s and 1970s, Lilly developed cult status as a far-out guru of consciousness exploration, promoting the use of psychedelics and sensory isolation tanks. Lilly argued that, rather than being used as tools of brainwashing, these techniques could be employed by the individual to regain control of their own mind and retain a sense of agency over their thoughts and actions. This article examines the scientific, intellectual, and cultural relationship between the sciences of brainwashing and psychedelic mind alteration. Through an analysis of Lilly’s autobiographical writings, I also show how paranoid ideas about brainwashing and mind control provide an important lens for understanding the trajectory of Lilly’s research.

The ‘Cold War brainwashing scare’

Lilly’s appointment to the NIMH came shortly after a new term – brainwashing – had been introduced into the English language. The term was first used publicly by journalist .7 In this article and in later works, Hunter claimed that by combining Pavlovian theory with modern technology, Russian and Chinese psychologists had developed powerful techniques for manipulating minds. Although it resonated with concerns about the growing global influence of communism, the term brainwashing would perhaps never have gained traction if it had not been for a series of scandals involving collaboration between American POWs and the Chinese enemy during the Korean War. Most famously, in 1952, Colonel Frank Schwable and 35 other captured US Air Force personnel publicly confessed to committing crimes of germ warfare against North Korea. Other accounts of collaboration at the hands of the Chinese, including the making of public anti-war and anti-McCarthy broadcasts, received widespread attention during the war. Perhaps most controversially, after a long-awaited armistice deal was agreed in 1953, one British and 21 American POWs refused to be repatriated after the war, choosing to relocate to communist China instead. It was widely reported that the soldiers had been exposed to sophisticated techniques of mental coercion based on Pavlovian science, similar to those reported to have been used to extract confessions for Soviet purge trials such as that of Cardinal József Mindszenty in 1949 ().

Scholarship on this period has described the ‘Cold War brainwashing scare’, the ‘brainwashing idea’, and the ‘spectre of brainwashing’, as a central motif in postwar film and literature upon which myriad concerns about agency and influence were projected (for use of these phrases see, respectively, ; ; ). Whilst such scholarship has often described brainwashing as a ‘cultural fantasy’, the idea of brainwashing nonetheless had real effects, not least within the human sciences. In the early 1950s, building on investigations carried out since the Second World War, the CIA established its notorious MKULTRA programme, which aimed, in the words of its former director Sidney Gottlieb, to ‘investigate whether and how it was possible to modify an individual’s behaviour by covert means’ (: 57). What the historian Alfred McCoy has called ‘the Manhattan Project of the mind’ was fuelled by a dual sense of hubris about the CIA’s own research and development potential and paranoia about the capabilities of the enemy, enhanced, as it were, by the semi-tangible reports of enemy scientific projects within what Melley has called the ‘covert sphere’ (; ).

According to his own memoirs, Lilly had long been interested in questions of behavioural control. It was reportedly his reading of Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World in 1934 and its portrayal of the misuse of the human sciences that influenced his decision to major in biology rather than physics as a student (: 57). Although Lilly has somewhat successfully cultivated an image of himself as someone who resisted the lure of military and intelligence funding, like many of his peers, his work and career was heavily shaped by the wider forces shaping the human sciences after the war (; ).


*Lilly, ‘Special Considerations of Modified Human Agents as Reconnaissance and Intelligence Devices (Committee D, Intelligence and Reconnaissance)’, Lilly Papers, Box 54, Folder 17. Exactly when and where this paper was delivered is unclear. In his paper on human manipulation, Lilly implies that both papers were presented at the same place or at connected events: ‘In the following discussion I wish to mention a few human cases; a later supplement will mention certain non-human species as possible agents.’ It is likely that this work or similar was presented at the Pentagon meeting discussed in Lilly’s memoirs (: 93–5). According to a former intelligence official’s description of this meeting ‘Dr. Lilly stated that the potential of this technique in “brain-washing” or interrogation or in the field of controlling the actions of humans and animals is almost limitless’: memorandum, Jones to Deloach, 2, FBI personal file, as quoted in . However, an old inventory for Lilly’s archive from 1992 includes the entry ‘Manuscript of Presentation Given to GAP Symposium on Brainwashing Entitled: “Special Considerations of Modified Human Agents as Reconnaissance and Intelligence Devices”: November 1956’, suggesting that Lilly may have delivered this paper at a meeting for the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, which we know he attended (). Yet this is further complicated by the fact that both papers include references dated as late as 1958, suggesting the papers in the archive were presented after 1956.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899429/pdf/10.1177_0952695119872094.pdf


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Operation Mind Control (Bowart, 1978)

Download book as PDF: libgen.gs/ads.php?md5=5b759b56e154df6303bb47b051dfb3db
Audiobook: open.spotify.com/show/18iTbULC7tuii1Y3qf9LOr
Interview with James Martinez: vimeo.com/7952557

BiBTeX
@book{book:{91532088},
title = {Operation Mind Control},
author = {Walter Bowart},
isbn = {0440167558; 9780440167556},
year = {1978},
url = {libgen.li/file.php?md5=5b759b56e154df6303bb47b051dfb3db}}


This text is an excerpt from a chapter of Bärtås and Ekman’s collection of essays Orienterarsjukan och andra berättelser.

URL: biblioteket.stockholm.se/titel/516229

The letter from Professor Delgado carries two insignias. One is made of Hebrew letters on what looks like a Torah scroll. Under the scroll it says “lux et veritas”—light and truth. The other insignia reads “Investigacion Ramon y Cajal.” In our letter to him, we have explained that we are two artists who have been studying his “astonishing research,” and that we are interested in his views on the relationship between humans and machines. José M.R. Delgado has written that he will be most happy to receive us at his home in Madrid.

Delgado’s name is a constant on various conspiracy websites dedicated to the topic of mind control; those with names like The Government Psychiatric Torture Site, Mind Control Forum, and Parascope. The Internet has in fact become the medium of conspiracy theorists. The network functions as an endless library where the very web structure lends itself to a conspiratorial frame of mind. The idea that every phenomenon and person can be connected to another phenomenon and person is the seed of the conspiracy theorist’s claim to “make the connections between things,” track the flow of power, and show how everything hangs together within some larger murky context.

Before traveling to Madrid, we get a hold of Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, the 1969 Delgado book most often cited on the Net. The book has has been gathering dust for 30 years at the university’s psychology library: it has never been cracked open. It is a disturbing book, less because of its photographs of animal experiments than because of the triumphal tone of the writing. Delgado discusses how we have managed to tame and civilize our surrounding nature. Now it is time to civilize our inner being. The scientist sees himself on the verge of a new era where humans will undergo “psycho-civilization” by linking their brains directly to machines.

“Ramon y Cajal”—the name on one of the two insignia—is referred to in Delgado’s book. Cajal was a famous histologist who became the young Delgado’s mentor and inspiration. In his acknowledgements, Delgado cites Cajal’s telling claim that “knowledge of the physicochemical basis of memory, feelings, and reason would make man the true master of creation, that his most transcendental accomplishment would be the conquering of his own brain.”1

Professor Delgado is now 85 and lives in a suburb of Madrid. Madrid is also the home of an anonymous group of people who call themselves Nosman, and are dedicated to gathering information about Delgado and his career. We e-mail Nosman and receive some awkwardly written responses that oscillate between warnings about the Spanish security agencies and suspicious questions about us and our interest in Delgado. For some reason, they refuse to meet with us but give us Delgado’s email address anyway. Delgado, on the other hand, responds immediately when we get to Madrid. He is very eager to invite us to lunch.

It was at Madrid University that Delgado began his research on pain and pleasure as the means of behavior control. After World War II, he became the head of the Department of neuropsychiatry at Yale’s medical school. In 1966, he became a professor in physiology. By that time, he had further developed the research of the Swiss physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Walter Rudolph Hess who had used electric stimulation to chart how different parts of the brain control different motor functions.

After a series of spectacular experiments on animals in Bermuda, Delgado wrote: “If you insert electrodes directly into the brains of cats and apes, they will behave like electronic toys. A whole series of motor functions can be triggered based on which button the experimenter pushes. This applies to all body parts: front and back paws, the tail, the hind parts, the head, and the ears.”

Using electrostimulation in a group of gibbon apes, Delgado succeeded in dismantling the usual power structure within the group. He gave a female ape with a low ranking a control box connected to electrodes that were implanted in the group’s alpha male, and the female learned to use the box to turn the alpha male on and off at will.

The electrodes were inserted into the ape’s brain and connected to an instrument that Delgado called the stimoceiver. The stimoceiver was an ideal instrument for two-way communication. Researchers could affect and at the same time register activity in the brain. From earlier prototypes where the lab animals were connected with wires, a remote control model was later developed that could send and receive signals over FM waves. The device was developed from the telemetric equipment used to send signals to and from astronauts in space. “We have already established radio contact with space; it is now time to establish contact with the human brain,”—a recurring refrain in Delgado’s articles.

The taxi lets us out in an upscale suburb of Madrid where a light rain is falling on the brick houses. A church service has just finished and people in Burberry clothes are streaming out of a strange concrete church. At the entrance of the apartment building where Delgado lives, we are met by a fashionable and exuberant American woman of indeterminable age. The woman, who is Delgado’s wife, talks nonstop in the elevator that opens directly into the apartment. The apartment is decorated in a fussy, bourgeois style. If it were not such a bleak day, the view would extend all the way to the Pardo Mountains. Delgado gives us a very cordial welcome. He is a proper old gentleman with sharp, intelligent eyes.

Delgado says that he has had a nightmare about our visit and woke up crying in the middle of the night. In the dream, we had showed up barefoot and in short sleeve shirts and had proceeded to gulp down all of his meringues. An hour later, we are seated at the marble table in his dining room and are served meringues and strawberry tarts after a large meal. We do not want to have more than one meringue each.

In a CNN special from 1985 called “Electro-magnetic Weapons and Mind Control,” the reporter claims that Delgado’s experiments were limited to animals. Nor is there anything in the texts on the various websites that indicates how far Delgado went in his research. His experiments on humans seem to have fallen into a strange collective amnesia. But anyone can walk into any well-stocked American medical library and take out Delgado’s own reports and articles on the subject. There we can find his own candid, open descriptions of how he moved on from experimenting on animals to humans. In an article called “Radio Control Behavior” in the February 1969 issue of The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Delgado, Dr. Mark, and several other colleagues describe what was the first clinical use of Intracerebral Radio Stimulation (IRS) on a human being. The stimoceiver itself only weighed 70 grams and was held fast by a bandage. One of the patients hid her stimoceiver with a wig because the experiments lasted days or weeks. The patients were scrutinized thoroughly. Everything they said was taped, their EEG was recorded, and they were photographed at regular intervals in order to document changes in their facial expressions.

In one of the article’s photographs, we see two of the subjects engaged in “spontaneous activity.” They are both girls with bandages over their heads. The girl in the background is holding something to her mouth, perhaps a harmonica. The other girl is bent over a guitar. Delgado’s colleague, Dr. Mark, is smiling at them. Mark had already achieved some notoriety at this time by claiming that all anti-social behavior is caused by brain damage. His recommendation had been the mass scanning of the American population in order to detect such damage in time and “correct” it.

Delgado and Mark’s article offers short descriptions of the patients who have had the device affixed to their brain. A black fourteen-year-old girl on the border of developmental disability who grew up in a foster home suddenly goes into a fury that leads to the death of her two stepsisters. A thirty-five-year old white industrial designer who ends up killing his wife and children flies into a rage when other motorists try to overtake him and he chases them and tries to run them off the road. Their aggressive behavior is supposed to be registered by the stimoceiver in the way a seismograph registers the earth’s tremors and the same stimoceiver is then to “turn them off” via the FM transmitter.

Delgado bombards us with a steady stream of anecdotes, scientific comments, and provocative rhetorical questions that are only interrupted by occasional tender comments directed to his wife. He tells of his work at the Ramon y Cajal Institute in the 1930s. In order to save a few paltry pennies, he would take a short cut through the zoo on his way to and from work. He would wander through the zoo alone at dawn and dusk and would hear lions and tigers roaring in this jungle in the city. After the War, he came to conquer nature in his own way in Bermuda. Even his wife was delighted to see the alpha male gibbon collapse when the underlings pushed the control lever. “Do you remember how we thought of Franco?” says his wife. “Imagine being able to turn off the Generalisimo.” Delgado responds “But who could have put the electrodes into the dictator? With electromagnetic radiation we could have controlled the dictator from a distance. We did some experiments at Yale where we influenced the brain from up to 30 meters away.”

One of the most important reasons why we wanted to meet Delgado is that we imagined him and his activities as belonging to a borderland between fiction and reality, between science and madness. People in psychotic states of mind often feel themselves controlled by foreign voices or spend their lives trying to prove that they have had a transmitter implanted inside their skulls that dictates their actions and thoughts all day and night. We ask Delgado what he thinks of the fact that his research provides a realistic edge to such fantasies.

He answers that he has on several occasions been contacted by strangers who say they want to have their implants removed and also that he has been sued by people he has never seen. Delgado is silent about the article that appeared in the Spanish monthly magazine Tiempo last year, where he was interviewed about exactly such accusations. The Tiempo reporter claimed that Delgado has ties with the Spanish secret police.

Delgado stretches out after the strawberry tarts. He has come to think of a case in Pittsburg in the 1950s where a robber was offered a milder sentence in exchange for being lobotomized. “I was operating electrodes into people’s brains at that time together with my good friend David Koskoff.” It was Koskoff who carried out the lobotomy on the robber. The patient was quiet for a while after the operation but then reverted to carrying out robberies again. In despair over his own unreliability, he decided to take his own life. He wrote a suicide note addressed to Dr. Koskoff: “Doctor, all your work has been in vain. I am an incompetent man and a criminal. I am taking my life but I am shooting myself in the heart and not the head. I donate my brain to you for research.”

Delgado’s wife puts her arm on his shoulder and says “And very little has happened since then, dear. There are still lots of bums running around.” The comment makes us both look away.

A moment later, we are sitting on the sofa. Delgado admits that not one useful application of the stimoceiver has come out of his research. “We knew too little about the brain. It is much too complicated to be controlled. We never knew which parts of the brain we were stimulating with the stimoceiver. We didn’t even manage to prevent epileptic attacks, which we thought would be the simplest of things. We never found the area where epilepsy attacks originate.” He says all of this without a trace of bitterness, as if in passing.

We are surprised by his casual attitude toward the stimoceiver, which in the 1960s and 70s was heralded as a great contribution to science. To demonstrate the power of their invention, Delgado and his colleagues orchestrated violent scenes in the lab. In her book, The Brain Changers: Scientists and the New Mind Control, Maya Pine describes a film where Dr. Mark attaches a stimoceiver to an electrode in a woman’s brain:

As the film opens, the patient, a rather attractive young woman, is seen playing the guitar and singing “Puff, the Magic Dragon.” A psychiatrist sits a few feet away. She seems undisturbed by the bandages that cover her head like a tight hood, from her forehead to the back of her neck. Then a mild electric current is sent from another room, stimulating one of the electrodes in her right amygdala. Immediately, she stops singing, the brainwave tracings from her amygdala begin to show spikes, a sign of seizure activity. She stares blankly ahead. Suddenly she grabs her guitar and smashes it against the wall, narrowly missing the psychiatrist’s head.2

The same incident was described in one of Delgado’s own articles. This experiment was repeated three days in a row.

If there were any problems with the experiments for Delgado, these were not ethical in nature but technical. How do you replicate the lab situation in society? How do you cut off the electricity to the stimoceiver? How do you avoid scarring and inflammation where the stimoceiver enters the brain? But the problems did not provoke any doubts about the supposed success of the stimoceiver. In the long run, the technique could be used to make people happy from a distance.

“When did you stop the stimoceiver experiments?” we ask him. To our surprise, he responds indignantly that he has yet to do so. “After Yale, I have continued my experiments here in Spain, both on animals and on humans.” Delgado’s pragmatism does another pirouette and we are beginning to have trouble following him.

Delgado pours coffee with his trembling hands. Spanish guitar music from the stereo fills the silence. We look together through the three recent collection of essays that Delgado has placed in front of us. Their publication dates range from 1979 up to this year. There is no emphasis on neurophysiology in any of them. Instead, they address questions of learning and upbringing from a more general psychological point of view.

Until the end of the 70s, Delgado and his colleagues were considered conquerors of an unknown territory, a wild and expansive jungle, the landscape of the brain and the soul. Apparently Delgado never got very far into the jungle, which proved to be much too thick and impenetrable. He has apparently retired without any regrets. He has instead started to cultivate his own garden. “My new book is going to be called The Education of My Grandchildren and Myself.”

We ask if it is possible to learn to interpret the electrical language of the brain and mention the Swedish science journalist Göran Frankel’s interview with Delgado back in 1977.3 In the interview Delgado claims that it is only a question of time before we connect the brain directly into computers that can communicate with the brain’s electrical language.

Delgado makes a dismissive gesture and looks at us as if we are numskulls. “It is impossible to decode the brain’s language. We can obviously manipulate different forms of electrical activity but what does that prove?” When we ask him about his colleague, Dr. Robert G. Heath, who claimed to be able to cure schizophrenic patients with electrostimulation, Delgado breaks into a patronizing smile and says, “Yes, yes, you’re supposed to have a box on your stomach with cables coming out of it that attach to electrodes in your brain and you stimulate yourself. It never worked.”

We lead him to a discussion of his own patients. Delgado interrupts us: “I have never done experiments on people.” For a moment, we wonder if we’ll have to take out one of his own scientific articles and hold it in front of him as evidence. We start to look for our file with hundreds of medical reports and articles. “You have to understand,” he says. “There are incredibly stringent rules around experimenting on humans. All the experiments I was involved in had a therapeutic goal. They were for the patients’ best.”

In one of the Yale reports in our file, there is a description of an experiment on an epileptic mental patient. The report states that the woman has been in asylums for a long time, she is worried about her daughter, and suffers from economic hardship. Electrodes measuring 12 centimeters have been stuck into her brain, 5 centimeters of them inside the brain tissue. She is interviewed while being given periodic electrical stimulation. The woman is tossed between various emotional states and finds that strange words are coming to her mind. She experiences pain and sexual desire. At the end of the interview, she becomes flirty and her language becomes coarse, only to be ashamed later and ask to be excused for words that she felt had come to her from outside. The woman has been transformed into a speaking doll that unwillingly gives voice to her brain’s every whim.

Delgado, who had previously been so flattered by two artists being interested in his work, now seems to be looking at us with new eyes. Who are we? And what do we want? His tone is short and sharp. The temperature in the apartment has dropped a few degrees.

In Physical Control of the Mind, Delgado proudly sums up how he has “used electrodes implanted for days or months to block thought, speech, and movement, or to trigger joy, laughter, friendliness, verbal activity, generosity, fear, hallucinations, and memory.” With this in mind, we ask him what therapeutic results came from these experiments. “As a whole, they didn’t result in any methods, except in the case of patients with chronic pain.”
Delgado in his apartment in Madrid. Video still courtesy of Magnus Bärtås.

He looks at the clock and says that we only have five minutes left. But we do not want to abandon our questions about the patients. What happened to them? How long were the implants in their brains? Delgado now becomes somewhat vague. He says that it was other researchers that left the implants in for a long time, not him or Dr. Heath, and he does not recall which patients it was. The electrodes were taken out of his own patients after a couple of days and did not cause any injuries. “We killed maybe a few hundred neurons when we inserted the electrodes. But the brain has millions of neurons.”

When Delgado spoke in the 60s of “the precise interface between brain and machine,” it gave rise to a number of far-fetched military visions. His research was also mainly funded by military institutions such as the Office of Naval Research and the Air Force AeroMedical Research Laboratory.

In the US, the CIA and government research in (and use of) different means of behavior control was made public in a series of congressional hearings in 1974 as well as in a Senate investigation three years later. Witnesses offered a glimpse of the CIA’s astonishing experiments in the so-called MK-Ultra program. The list of MK-Ultra experiments is like a group photo of the extended family of behavioral technologies: hypnosis, drugs, psychological testing, sleep research, brain research, electromagnetism, lie detection. The specific operations had very imaginative names: Sleeping Beauty, Project Pandora, Woodpecker, Artichoke, Operation Midnight Climax.

One of MK-Ultra’s fields of interest was electromagnetic fields and their effect on human beings. In 1962 it was discovered that the Russians had directed microwave radiation at the American embassy in Moscow with the hope of penetrating through to the ambassador’s office. The CIA immediately mounted an investigation under the codename Project Pandora. Concurrently with his research on the stimoceiver, Delgado had begun research on electro-magnetic radiation and its capacity for influencing people’s consciousness, and there is speculation that Delgado may have been involved in Project Pandora.

The CIA arranged for apes to be brought to the embassy. When the apes were examined after a period of being radiated, it was discovered that they had undergone changes in their chromosomes and blood. The personnel at the embassy was later reported to have increased white blood cell counts of up to 40 percent. The Boston Globe reported that the ambassador himself suffered not only from bloody eyes and chronic headaches but also from a blood disease resembling leukemia.

We take up Delgado’s research on electromagnetic fields and their effect on people. “I could later do with electro-magnetic radiation what I did with the stimoceiver. It’s much better because there’s no need for surgery,” he explains. “I could make apes go to sleep. But I stopped that line of research fifteen years ago. But I’m sure they’ve done a lot more research on this in both the US and Russia.”

We understand now that Delgado thinks the meeting ought to come to an end. We ask him about Project Pandora and he confirms the story of the Moscow Signal without any hesitation but he denies being involved in the operation.

In 1972, an article citing Delgado’s views was presented at Congress’s MK-Ultra hearings:

We need a program of psychosurgery for political control of our society. The purpose is physical control of the mind. Everyone who deviates from the given norm can be surgically manipulated. The individual may think that the most important reality is his own existence, but this is only his personal point of view. This lacks historical perspective Man does not have the right to develop his own mind. This kind of liberal orientation has great appeal. We must electrically control the brain. Some day armies and generals will be controlled by electric stimulation of the brain.4

When we confront him with this statement, he falls silent for a second. His crystal-clear memory of a moment ago suddenly evaporates. A fog sweeps in, the words become hard to get out. He does not recall ever being called to Congress. And he has no desire to acknowledge the kinds of statements we have just mentioned. For a second, Delgado becomes a very old and fragile man. But in the next moment, he is standing up straight again and has shaken off all these unpleasantries. Now he is in a hurry. He has to meet his sick sister-in-law. We try to secure a second meeting but he is evasive and talks about the vagaries of the weather and trips to his country house. Out the door in a cloud of cigar smoke, the taxi takes us back to Madrid.

Translated by Sina Najafi

This article was corrected on 29 November 2014. Since publishing this article in Cabinet no. 2 (Spring 2001), several errors have come to our attention. Together, these support Delgado’s claim that he never appeared before Congress or made the statement that the authors attributed to him. Delgado never testified before Congress during the MK-Ultra hearings, which in fact took place not in 1974 but in 1977. Neither is his name present in any of the transcripts of the hearings. Additionally, as far as we have been able to determine, the cited statement does not exist in this form in any of Delgado’s publications, though some of the phrases do occur in his book Physical Control of the Mind. The sole reference to Delgado in the Congressional Record that we have been able to locate appears in Dr. Peter Breggin’s “The Return of Lobotomy and Psychosurgery.” This article, which was critical of Delgado’s methods, was entered into the Congressional Record on 24 February 1972. We regret the errors.


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Neuromodulation techniques: A synoptic overview


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Zbar, A. P.. (2014). Sacral neuromodulation and peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with anal incontinence: An overview of techniques, complications and troubleshooting. Gastroenterology Report

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/gastro/gou015
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Karri, J., Singh, M., Orhurhu, V., Joshi, M., & Abd-Elsayed, A.. (2020). Pain Syndromes Secondary to Cluneal Nerve Entrapment. Current Pain and Headache Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11916-020-00891-7
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Fekete, Z., Horváth, C., & Zátonyi, A.. (2020). Infrared neuromodulation:A neuroengineering perspective. Journal of Neural Engineering

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Zhu, A., Qureshi, A. A., Kozin, E. D., & Lee, D. J.. (2020). Concepts in Neural Stimulation: Electrical and Optical Modulation of the Auditory Pathways. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

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LeBeau, F. E. N., El Manira, A., & Griller, S.. (2005). Tuning the network: Modulation of neuronal microcircuits in the spinal cord and hippocampus. Trends in Neurosciences

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Cha, K. S., Yeo, D., & Kim, K. H.. (2016). Neural signal processing for closed-loop neuromodulation. Biomedical Engineering Letters

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Hoffmann, J., & May, A.. (2019). Neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache syndromes. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

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Martens, F. M. J., & Sievert, K. D.. (2020). Neurostimulation in neurogenic patients. Current Opinion in Urology

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Harmsen, I. E., Elias, G. J. B., Beyn, M. E., Boutet, A., Pancholi, A., Germann, J., … Lozano, A. M.. (2020). Clinical trials for deep brain stimulation: Current state of affairs. Brain Stimulation

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Chen, Y., Tang, T., & Erdek, M. A.. (2019). Advanced Image-Guided Procedures for Painful Spine. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America

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Mishra, S., Kumar, A., Padmanabhan, P., & Gulyás, B.. (2021). Neurophysiological correlates of cognition as revealed by virtual reality: Delving the brain with a synergistic approach. Brain Sciences

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Christen, M., & Müller, S.. (2017). Editorial: The Clinical and Ethical Practice of Neuromodulation – Deep Brain Stimulation and Beyond. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

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Stakenborg, N., & Boeckxstaens, G. E.. (2021). Bioelectronics in the brain-gut axis: Focus on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). International Immunology

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Serrano-Munoz, D., Taylor, J., Megia-Garcia, A., & Gomez-Soriano, J.. (2019). Neuromodulation for neurorehabilitation of motor disorders for stroke and spinal cord injury: An overview. Neuromodulation
Civelli, O.. (2012). Orphan GPCRs and Neuromodulation. Neuron

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Wagner, T., Valero-Cabre, A., & Pascual-Leone, A.. (2007). Noninvasive human brain stimulation. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering

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Cho, Y., Park, J., Lee, C., & Lee, S.. (2020). Recent progress on peripheral neural interface technology towards bioelectronic medicine. Bioelectronic Medicine

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Linster, C.. (2014). Neuromodulation: Overview. In Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

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Lakatos, P., Gross, J., & Thut, G.. (2019). Review A New Unifying Account of the Roles of Neuronal. Current Biology
Bartoli, F., Burnstock, G., Crocamo, C., & Carrà, G.. (2020). Purinergic signaling and related biomarkers in depression. Brain Sciences

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Fellous, J. M., & Linster, C.. (1998). Computational Models of Neuromodulation. Neural Computation

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Chaudhry, S. R., Stadlbauer, A., Buchfelder, M., & Kinfe, T. M.. (2021). Melatonin moderates the triangle of chronic pain, sleep architecture and immunometabolic traffic. Biomedicines

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Konofagou, E.. (2018). Focused ultrasound for modulation of the central and peripheral nervous system. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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Byron, N., Semenova, A., & Sakata, S.. (2021). Mutual interactions between brain states and Alzheimer’s disease pathology: A focus on gamma and slow oscillations. Biology

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Kohan, L., McKenna, C., & Irwin, A.. (2020). Ilioinguinal Neuropathy. Current Pain and Headache Reports

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Chen, S. P., & Ayata, C.. (2017). Novel Therapeutic Targets Against Spreading Depression. Headache

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Ekhtiari, H., Tavakoli, H., Addolorato, G., Baeken, C., Bonci, A., Campanella, S., … Hanlon, C. A.. (2019). Transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation (tES and TMS) for addiction medicine: A consensus paper on the present state of the science and the road ahead. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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Fridén, J., House, J., Keith, M., Schibli, S., & van Zyl, N.. (2021). Improving hand function after spinal cord injury. Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume

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Anderson, N. D., & Craik, F. I. M.. (2017). 50 years of cognitive aging theory. Journals of Gerontology – Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

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Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno (NBIC) technologies

Martin-Sanchez, F., & Maojo, V.. (2009). Biomedical Informatics and the Convergence of Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno (NBIC) Technologies. Yearbook of Medical Informatics

, 18(01), 134–142.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1638652
DOI URL
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Abstract

Objectives: To analyze the role that biomedical informatics could play in the application of the NBIC Converging Technologies in the medical field and raise awareness of these new areas throughout the Biomedical Informatics community.

Methods: Review of the literature and analysis of the reference documents in this domain from the biomedical informatics perspective. Detailing existing developments showing that partial convergence of technologies have already yielded relevant results in biomedicine (such as bioinformatics or biochips). Input from current projects in which the authors are involved is also used.

Results: Information processing is a key issue in enabling the convergence of NBIC technologies. Researchers in biomedical informatics are in a privileged position to participate and actively develop this new scientific direction. The experience of biomedical informaticians in five decades of research in the medical area and their involvement in the completion of the Human and other genome projects will help them participate in a similar role for the development of applications of converging technologies -particularly in nanomedicine.

Conclusions: The proposed convergence will bring bridges between traditional disciplines. Particular attention should be placed on the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the NBIC convergence. These technologies provide new directions for research and education in Biomedical Informatics placing a greater emphasis in multidisciplinary approaches.

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UNESCO, Neuropolitics & Transhumanism

 

Developments in biotechnology and neuroscience have the potential to unleash an engineering of human beings previously inconceivable. Proper ethical governance and a new understanding of humanism, are necessary to steer these technological developments in the direction of supporting sustainable, just and peaceful futures. Such futures will depend on open data, open science and an expanded understanding of the right to education to include the right to data, to information and to the protection of privacy.

UNESO, International Commission on the Futures of Education, p.8 et seq.


375746eng

“It is, however, essential that eugenics should be brought entirely within the borders of science, for, as already indicated, in the not very remote future the problem of improving the average quality of human beings is likely to become urgent; and this can only be accomplished by applying the findings of a truly scientific eugenics.”

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley
From UNESCO Its Purpose and Its Philosophy

unesco
Hitchner, D. G., & Huxley, J.. (1948). UNESCO: Its Purpose and Its Philosophy. The Western Political Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/442317
DOI URL
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Page 1234
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See also cognitive-liberty.online/julian-huxley-unesco-and-eugenics/

Inattentional blindness: The 5G rollout and its ramifications

This post is under construction…

 

Daniel J simon, C. F. C. (1999). Gorilla in our midst – reference. Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained, Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events – Perception.
Simons, D. J. (2010).
Monkeying around with the Gorillas in Our Midst: Familiarity with an Inattentional-Blindness Task Does Not Improve the Detection of Unexpected Events. I-Perception, 1(1), 3–6. doi.org/10.1068/i03865

5G map: www.nperf.com/de/map/5g
5G has been developed by the US/Israeli military as a weapon to disperse crowds (directed energy beams which are harmful to biological organisms). It has been used twice during the illegal Irak-war. There are virtually no studies about the safety of 5G and it can be regarded as a social experiment without consensus and control-group. The 60Ghz frequency interferes with oxygen absorption of hemoglobin.

Tretyakov, M. Y., Koshelev, M. A., Dorovskikh, V. V., Makarov, D. S., & Rosenkranz, P. W. (2005). 60-GHz oxygen band: precise broadening and central frequencies of fine-structure lines, absolute absorption profile at atmospheric pressure, and revision of mixing coefficients. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 231(1), 1–14. doi.org/10.1016/j.jms.2004.11.011


Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psycho-civilized Society by José M. R. Delgado. Publication date 1969

archive.org/details/PhysicalControlOfTheMindJosM.R.Delgado1969

Electronic technology has reached a high level of sophistication,
and two-way radio commJ’nication with automobiles, airplanes,
and outer space vehicles is commonplace today. The
notable lag in development of similar instrumentation for communciation with the depth of the brain reflects the already
mentioned unbalanced evolution of our technological civilization,
which seems more interested in accumulating power than
in understanding and influencing the basic mechanisms of the
human mind.
This gap is now being filled, and as Figures 4 and 5 show, it
is already possible to equip animals or human beings with
minute instruments called “stimoceivers” for radio transmission
and reception of electrical messages to and from the brain in
completely unrestrained subjects. Microminiaturization of the
instrument’s electronic components permits control of all parameters of excitation for radio stimulation of three different points
within the brain and also telemetric recording of three channels
of intracerebral electrical activity. In animals, the stimoceiver
may be anchored to the skull, and different members of a colony
can be studied without disturbing their spontaneous relations
within a group. Behavior such as aggression can be evoked or
inhibited. In patients, the stimoceiver may be strapped to the
head bandage, permitting electrical stimulation and monitoring
of intracerebral activity without disturbing spontaneous activities.

Prof. Rainer Mausfeld: Fear and Power – The war against “X”

“Under the pretext of a governmental war against “X”, democratic structures can be dismantled and authoritarian structures established.”

BibTeX
@book{book:{2453221},
title = {Angst und Macht – Herrschaftstechniken der Angsterzeugung in kapitalistischen Demokratien},
author = {Rainer Mausfeld},
publisher = {Westend-Verlag},
isbn = {ISBN-10: 3864892813 ISBN-13: 978-3864892813},
year = {2019},
series = {},
edition = {},
volume = {},
url = {http://gen.lib.rus.ec/book/index.php?md5=7ce671ee666b2b46a99adf2dd3287922}}

Download mirrors:

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

p. 39
“Demselben Zweck einer Verdeckung eigener Ziele und Absichten dient eine Angsterzeugung durch propagandistische Deklaration einer großen Gefahr X, der die Bevölkerung durch einen »Kampf gegen X« entschlossen entgegentreten müsse. Eine derartige propagandistische Warnung begleiten die staat­lichen Apparate durch »die gegenwärtig alles beherrschende Verheißung des Schutzes vor Terrorismus und Bösem aller Art«.38 X kann dabei so ziemlich alles sein, was sich irgendwie wirksam zur Angsterzeugung nutzen lässt. X kann also für »Kommunismus« stehen, für Migranten, »Sozialschmarotzer«, Terrorismus, Fake News und Desinformation, Rechtspopu­lismus, Islamismus oder für irgendetwas anderes. Durch die propagandistische Ausrufung eines »Kampfes gegen X« lassen sich in »kapitalistischen Demokratien« gleichzeitig mehrere von den Zentren der Macht gewünschte Ziele erreichen: Zum einen wird der für Machtzwecke nutzbare Rohstoff »Angst« produziert, zudem lässt sich die Aufmerksamkeit sehr wirksam auf Ablenkziele richten, und schließlich lassen sich unter dem Vorwand eines Kampfes gegen X demokratische Strukturen abbauen und auf allen Ebenen der Exekutive und Legislative autoritäre Strukturen etablieren.”

Further References

Simulacra and simulation (Jean Baudrillard, 1994)


Further References

Groom, N., Baudrillard, J., & Grant, I. H.. (2007). Symbolic Exchange and Death. The Modern Language Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/3734103
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Baudrillard, J., & Glaser, S. F.. (1994). Simulacrum and Simulation (The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism). The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism
Baudrillard, J.. (1994). Simulacra and simulation / by Jean Baudrillard ; translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. Idea

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1017/S1359135500001081
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Nordin, A. H. M.. (2012). Taking Baudrillard to the fair: Exhibiting China in the world at the Shanghai Expo. Alternatives

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0304375412444816
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Croissant, J. L.. (2006). The new sexual technobody: Viagra in the hyperreal world. Sexualities

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1363460706065056
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Butterfield, B.. (2007). Ethical Value and Negative Aesthetics: Reconsidering the Baudrillard-Ballard Connection. PMLA

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/463427
DOI URL
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Constable, C.. (2006). Baudrillard reloaded: Interrelating philosophy and film via the Matrix Trilogy. Screen

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/screen/hjl018
DOI URL
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Massumi, B.. (1987). Realer than Real: The Simulacrum According to Deleuze and Guattari. Copyright
Rennett, M.. (2009). Baudrillard and The Joe Schmo Show. The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies
Baudrillard, J.. (1972). Simulacra & Simulation* precession of simulacra. Postmodern American Fiction: A Norton Anthology

Annie Jacobsen: Inside DARPA – The Pentagon’s Brain

Jacobsen, A.. (2015). The Pentagon’s brain : an uncensored history of DARPA, America’s top secret military research agency. Little, Brown US
Moreno, J. D.. (2012). Mind wars : brain science and the military in the twenty-first century. Bellevue Literary Press
Miranda, R. A., Casebeer, W. D., Hein, A. M., Judy, J. W., Krotkov, E. P., Laabs, T. L., … Ling, G. S. F.. (2014). DARPA-funded efforts in the development of novel brain-computer interface technologies.. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 244, 52–67.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.07.019
DOI URL
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Sir Francis Galton (*1822;†1911): Hereditary Genius

Sir Francis Galton, was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician. He was knighted in 1909.

Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, and introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies.

He was a pioneer in eugenics, coining the term itself and the phrase “nature versus nurture”. His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.

As an investigator of the human mind, he founded psychometrics (the science of measuring mental faculties) and differential psychology and the lexical hypothesis of personality. He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science. He also conducted research on the power of prayer, concluding it had none by its null effects on the longevity of those prayed for. His quest for the scientific principles of diverse phenomena extended even to the optimal method for making tea.

LibriVox

Hereditary Genius

A biographical summary of the pre-eminent men of Britain grouped by profession. The extensive survey draws from information including college graduation, reputation during career, fellowships, and even known relatives. Includes discussions on findings and observations as well as referenced appendices. - Summary by Leon Harvey
  • Preface
  • Introductory Chapter
  • Classification of Men According to Their Reputation
  • Classification of Men According to Their Natural Gifts
  • Comparison of the Two Classifications
  • Notation
  • The Judges of England Between 1660 and 1865
  • Statesmen
  • English Peerages. Their Influence Upon Race
  • Commanders
  • Literary Men
  • Men of Science
  • Poets
  • Musicians
  • Painters
  • Divines
  • Senior Classics of Cambridge
  • Oarsmen
  • Wrestlers of the North Country
  • Comparison of Results
  • The Comparative Worth of Different Races
  • Influences That Affect the General Ability of Nations
  • General Considerations
  • Appendix