“From the very beginning, attention is given to the fact that, being introduced at the very beginning of the 20th century, the axiology term, meaning the doctrine of values, almost immediately led to a boom in the development of theories of values (mainly in continental philosophy), whereas the agathology term, meaning the doctrine of goods, which was introduced in 1770 and then rediscovered in 1823, came to almost complete oblivion. for its rehabilitation, one of the commonplaces of the philosophy of the 20th and 21st centuries is reviewed, namely, the actual identification of goods and values, as a result of which the former of these concepts is absorbed by the latter. as for values, they are also usually viewed as common human needs, rather than deep and indivisible individual ‘inner possessions’. therefore, it is proposed to distinguish between universal needs and personal valuables and to stratify the world of significant things into values, preferences, and goods. as a result, the latter of these varieties is interpreted as a sphere of practical mind (both in the ancient and kantian senses), teleologically loaded and with the potential to be included in a new, the fourth of the large programmes of theoretical ethics (able to compete well with consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics) and, at the same time, laid into the foundation of the cluster of philosophical disciplines, which is commonly termed as practical philosophy”
Greaves, H.. (2017). Population axiology. Philosophy Compass, 12(11), e12442.
“Population axiology is the study of the conditions under which one state of affairs is better than another, when the states of affairs in question may differ over the numbers and the identities of the persons who ever live. extant theories include totalism, averagism, variable value theories, critical level theories, and ‘person-affecting’ theories. each of these theories is open to objections that are at least prima facie serious. a series of impossibility theorems shows that this is no coincidence: it can be proved, for various lists of prima facie intuitively compelling desiderata, that no axiology can simultaneously satisfy all the desiderata on the list. one’s choice of population axiology appears to be a choice of which intuition one is least unwilling to give up.”
Vyzhletsov, G. P.. (2019). Ontological axiology: origins and modernity. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Philosophy and Conflict Studies, 33(3)
“The article analyzes the current state of ontological axiology in the context the problem of the source of values associated with being as it is relevant to the philosophical discipline. employing examples from the history of the doctrine of values’ formation, the author demonstrates that the source of values is being as whole. according to the author, ontological axiology is based on the unity of objective, subjective and transcendental levels of being, rather than on its individual components. formation of ontological axiology begins with works of nietzsche and concludes in the classical period of its history (1890s – 1930s), with developments of such outstanding philosophers of the 20th century as g. rickert, m. heidegger, m. scheler, n. hartmann, and n. о. lossky. during this period, the doctrine of the absolute character of values as ‘transcendental essences’ was developed. in this case, the values themselves are differentiated, as expressions of the subjective, objective or transcendental levels of being. ontological axiology as a philosophical discipline reaches a new level of development from the 1990s to the 2010s in opposition to the axiological relativism of philosophy and socio-cultural reality of the postmodern. from the standpoint of updated ontological axiology, the source of the objectivity of is the transcendental spirit (deitas) as the spiritual potential of the infinite universe. the life of the universe gives birth to man in the unbreakable unity of his body, soul and spirit. therefore, axiology together with the ontology and epistemology determines the specificity of philosophy and ways of its further development. refs.14.”
Hart, S. L.. (1971). Axiology–Theory of Values. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 32(1), 29.
“AXIOLOGY or theory of values is a relatively newndiscipline although valuational issues have been with usnthe moment man began to reflect upon conditions of hisnlife, the structure and uniformity of nature, and the questnfor the good life. valuational preferences are notnartifacts one can dispense with. inquiries into theirngenetic conditions, their truth and validity claims arenessential for any, reflective, principled conduct. man notnonly is engaged in valuational preferences, but he is alsonconscious of a scale of values, which scale rests with thendegree and quality of satisfactions. the great interest innaxiology at present has many reasons: the divorce ofnontological and valuational questions, the cultural gap,nthe gap between physical and humanistic studies, and thenliterary influence of brentano, ehrenfels, and meinong. thenarticle on ‘axiology’ deals with the major axiologicalnschools of thought: platonism, intuitionism, emotivism, andnnaturalism.”
Thomas, T.. (2018). Some Possibilities in Population Axiology. Mind, 127(507), 807–832.
“It is notoriously difficult to find an intuitively satisfactory rule for evaluating populations based on the welfare of the people in them. standard examples, like total utilitarianism, either entail the repugnant conclusion or in some other way contradict common intuitions about the relative value of populations. several philosophers have presented formal arguments that seem to show that this happens of necessity: our core intuitions stand in contradiction. this paper assesses the state of play, focusing on the most powerful of these ‘impossibility theorems’, as developed by gustaf arrhenius. i highlight two ways in which these theorems fall short of their goal: some appeal to a supposedly egalitarian condition which, however, does not properly reflect egalitarian intuitions; the others rely on a background assumption about the structure of welfare which cannot be taken for granted. nonetheless, the theorems remain important: they give insight into the difficulty, if not perhaps the impossibility, of constructing a satisfactory population axiology. we should aim for reflective equilibrium between intuitions and more theoretical considerations. i conclude by highlighting one possible ingredient in this equilibrium, which, i argue, leaves open a still wider range of acceptable theories: the possibility of vague or otherwise indeterminate value relations.”
“Predicting the binding mode of flexible polypeptides to proteins is an important task that falls outside the domain of applicability of most small molecule and protein−protein docking tools. here, we test the small molecule flexible ligand docking program glide on a set of 19 non-α-helical peptides and systematically improve pose prediction accuracy by enhancing glide sampling for flexible polypeptides. in addition, scoring of the poses was improved by post-processing with physics-based implicit solvent mm- gbsa calculations. using the best rmsd among the top 10 scoring poses as a metric, the success rate (rmsd ≤ 2.0 å for the interface backbone atoms) increased from 21% with default glide sp settings to 58% with the enhanced peptide sampling and scoring protocol in the case of redocking to the native protein structure. this approaches the accuracy of the recently developed rosetta flexpepdock method (63% success for these 19 peptides) while being over 100 times faster. cross-docking was performed for a subset of cases where an unbound receptor structure was available, and in that case, 40% of peptides were docked successfully. we analyze the results and find that the optimized polypeptide protocol is most accurate for extended peptides of limited size and number of formal charges, defining a domain of applicability for this approach.”
“Objectives to analyze the role that biomedical informatics could play in the application of the nbic converging technologies in the medical field and raise awareness of these new areas throughout the biomedical informatics community.”
Objectives: To analyze the role that biomedical informatics could play in the application of the NBIC Converging Technologies in the medical field and raise awareness of these new areas throughout the Biomedical Informatics community.
Methods: Review of the literature and analysis of the reference documents in this domain from the biomedical informatics perspective. Detailing existing developments showing that partial convergence of technologies have already yielded relevant results in biomedicine (such as bioinformatics or biochips). Input from current projects in which the authors are involved is also used.
Results: Information processing is a key issue in enabling the convergence of NBIC technologies. Researchers in biomedical informatics are in a privileged position to participate and actively develop this new scientific direction. The experience of biomedical informaticians in five decades of research in the medical area and their involvement in the completion of the Human and other genome projects will help them participate in a similar role for the development of applications of converging technologies -particularly in nanomedicine.
Conclusions: The proposed convergence will bring bridges between traditional disciplines. Particular attention should be placed on the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the NBIC convergence. These technologies provide new directions for research and education in Biomedical Informatics placing a greater emphasis in multidisciplinary approaches.
Rebholz-Schuhman D, Cameron G, Clark D, van Mulligen E, Coatrieux JL, Del Hoyo Barbolla E, Martin-Sanchez F, Milanesi L, Porro I, Beltrame F, Tollis I, Van der Lei J.BMC Bioinformatics. 2007 Mar 8;8 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-S1-S18.PMID: 17430562Free PMC article.Review.
How strangely will the Tools of a Tyrant pervert the plain Meaning of Words!
— Samuel Adams
Archon (Greek: ἄρχων, romanized: árchōn) is the Greek term for “ruler”. Cognate derivatives are, e.g., terms such as:
anarchy (etymology discussed subsequently in more detail)
According to Aristotle’s Constitution of the Athenians (78-c. 100), the power and influence of the king first devolved to the archons, and these offices were filled from the aristocracy by elections on a decennial basis. Archon Eponymos was the primary magistrate, the Polemarch referred to the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was in charge of the religious aspects of society.
Various fraternities and sororities use the title of archon or variations on it. Some Gnostic sects used this term for demons associated with the planetspheres.
3-D computer rendering of an “archon”
The term anarchy is the negation of the term archon (i.e., the negatory prefix *a). It thus means “without a ruler/master”, i.e., human beings that do not accept a master and who do not allow others to rule over them (they are not slaves to anyone). Importantly, this derivation should not be confused with “chaos or without rules”. Anarchy simply is the negation of slavery.
Niemand ist mehr Sklave, als der sich für frei hält, ohne es zu sein. ‘
~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(Transl.: None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free.)
Human beings who are anarchists are thus literally beings that do not accept to be ruled by archons, i.e., they are free and cannot be ruled and suppressed by external forces (they only subordinate themselves to natural law, viz., the timeless universal metaphysical foundation of morality and ethics; cf. the Kantian categorical imperative).
Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
— Immanuel Kant, Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785)
In this context a quotation by the freedom fighter Malcolm X is of great pertinence.
He asked the following quintessential question concerning the highest of all virtues:
What is the price of freedom?
P.S. This does not imply that one has to die to be free, but it means that one has to be willing to risk once own life for the greatest of all goods, viz., the ultimate expression of human potential: Absolute Freedom.
If one is not willing to go “all in” one has lost the quest for freedom a priori because one is not willing to risk what it takes to achieve it. Fear is the inhibitor of freedom. Death is the mother of all fears. Ergo, overcoming the irrational fear of death is a condicio sine qua non for the obtainment of superordinate transcendental values.
Non-cooperation with evil is a sacred duty.
~ Mahatma Gandhi
Freedom comes with wisdom, intrinsically. They are inseparable, and no society wants people to be free. The communist society, the fascist society, the capitalist society, the Hindu, the Mohammedan, the Christian – no society likes people to use their own intelligence because the moment they start using their intelligence they become dangerous – dangerous to the establishment, dangerous to the people who are in power, dangerous to the “haves”; dangerous to all kinds of oppression, exploitation, suppression; dangerous to the churches, dangerous to the states, dangerous to the nations.
In fact, a wise man is afire, alive, aflame. He would like rather to die than to be enslaved. Death will not matter much to him, but he cannot sell his life to all kinds of stupidities, to all kinds of stupid people. He cannot serve them. Hence, the societies down the ages have been supplying you with false knowing. That’s the very function of your schools, colleges, universities.
They don’t serve you, remember, they serve the past, they serve the vested interests. Of course, they go on puffing your ego up bigger and bigger, they go on giving you more and more degrees. Your name becomes longer and longer, but only the name – you go on becoming shorter and shorter. A point comes where there are only certificates and the man has disappeared. First the man carries the certificates, then the certificates carry the man. The man is long dead.
“Jean baudrillard is one of the most celebrated and most controversial of contemporary social theorists. this major work, appearing in english for the first time, occupies a central place in the rethinking of the humanities and social sciences around the idea of postmodernism. it leads the reader on an exhilarating tour encompassing the end of marxism, the enchantment of fashion, symbolism about sex and the body, and the relations between economic exchange and death. most significantly, the book represents baudrillard’s fullest elaboration of the concept of the three orders of the simulacra, defining the historical passage from production to reproduction to simulation.”
Baudrillard, J., & Glaser, S. F.. (1994). Simulacrum and Simulation (The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism). The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism
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“Fvinoly@webvisual.com, 02/16/97, rating=10: essential postmodern text baudrillard provides us with a clear explanation of the concept of simulations and simulacra–the copy without the original. from this postmodern landmark, he gives us specific examples of his theory that are a pleasure to read. chapters on ‘the china syndrome’, ‘holograms’, and ‘the animals’, among others, begin to define our roles in postmodern society and our relationships with our environment and ourselves. each chapter gives you a new, fascinating perspective, that culminates and reaches full circle with his final discussion of ‘nihilism’. table of contents the precession of simulacra history: a retro scenario holocaust the china syndrome apocalypse now the beaubourg effect: implosion and deterrence hypermarket and hypercommodity the implosion of meaning in the media absolute advertising, ground-zero advertising clone story holograms crash simulacra and science fiction the animals: territory and metamorphoses the remainder the spiraling cadaver value’s last tango on nihilism”
Baudrillard, J.. (1994). Simulacra and simulation / by Jean Baudrillard ; translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. Idea
“Scholars have recently paid increasing attention to china’s ‘mega events’ as a form of image management striving to influence future world order. in this article, the author examines china’s recent world fair, expo 2010 shanghai china, and argues that we need to move beyond the reading of mega events as simple representation and ideology and read it also as simulation and simulacra. reading the chinese world fair as a simulacrum of world order can provide different ways of relating ‘the west’ to its ‘other country’ china. the author examines this relation through asking what it means to be the fair: where is the world fair? when is the world fair? who is the world fair? reading the world/fair as simulacrum disrupts the fair’s notions of inside and outside, now and then, subject and object to the point where these terms are no longer workable.”
Croissant, J. L.. (2006). The new sexual technobody: Viagra in the hyperreal world. Sexualities
“This essay, based on the work of baudrillard and other critical theorists of culture and technology, describes how viagra and related products are creating not just new standards for men and women’s sexual performance, but new forms of hypersexual’ reality/hyperreal sexuality. considering television advertisements and framed around metaphors of landscape, internet spam’ advertisements for sexual performance enhancing products (both mechanical and chemical), and bodybuilding magazine representations of the body and sexuality, it is apparent that sexual expression in these genres is both constrained and yet exceeds its boundaries. sexuality is represented in these media as heterosexual, penetrative, and never to be imperfect in any way. the body itself, perhaps aging or flawed, is represented as incapable of achieving these ends reliably without pharmaceutical means. i argue that viagra and other sexual pharmaceuticals are best understood as hyperreal or hypernatural (reflecting baudrillard’s 1994 work, simulacra and simulation), as simulacra that bear no relation to reality’. sexual pharmaceutical advertisements refer to an unmedicated imaginary that assumes a unity where there is diversity, and conflates the means and ends of sexual technique.”
Butterfield, B.. (2007). Ethical Value and Negative Aesthetics: Reconsidering the Baudrillard-Ballard Connection. PMLA
“Like today’s masses, the characters in j. g. ballard’s crash are fascinated by what jean baudrillard calls the accident, especially when it involves the death of a celebrity. ballard’s characters, however, reenact their accidents as sexual rituals of a marriage between technology and death that are beyond the realm of moral judgment, making crash sci-fi, hypothetical, unrealistic. calling crash ‘the first great novel of the universe of simulation,’ jean baudrillard has drawn heavy criticism for missing the alleged moral point, both in crash and in the still-real world. as a fiction writer, ballard is given a wide moral berth, but when baudrillard’s theory turns sci-fi, the question of ethical boundaries is broached, and leniency is less likely. in defense of baudrillard, i read him, like ballard, in the nietzschean tradition of a purposefully amoral, negative aestheticism, which i argue is of value to ethics and radical politics in a world governed by instrumental simulacra.; the characters of j. g. ballard’s ‘crash’ are fascinated by what jean baudrillard calls the accident. butterfield reads baudrillard like ballard in the nietzschean tradition of a purposefully amoral, negative aestheticism, which he argues is of value to ethics and radical politics in a world governed by instrumental simulacra.;”
Constable, C.. (2006). Baudrillard reloaded: Interrelating philosophy and film via the Matrix Trilogy. Screen
“The extensive writing on the philosophical aspects of the matrix trilogy raises the problems inherent to the interrelation of philosophy/theory and film texts in an acute form. the films are often treated as an introduction to diverse and difficult concepts meaning that – at best – they function as examples to make the theories accessible. at worst, they are castigated for being insufficiently critical and presented as pseudo-philosophy. in contrast, this article will demonstrate that the scenarios offered by the matrix trilogy form an active dialogue with postmodern philosophy, changing the construction of key philosophical concepts. tracing such a dialogue involves the development of a new model for interrelating philosophical and filmic texts. the first part of the article sets out a new methodology, drawing on the work of french feminist philosopher michele le doeuff. the article focuses on the imagery that characterizes/defines baudrillard’s concept of the hyperreal in simulacra and simulation. this is accompanied by an examination of the ways in which the matrix trilogy takes up key images, such as the mirror and aspects of greek mythology. the final part addresses the films’ presentation of value – a departure from its baudrillardian source – which sustains a radical reconceptualization of the hyperreal.”
Massumi, B.. (1987). Realer than Real: The Simulacrum According to Deleuze and Guattari. Copyright
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“There is a seductive image of contemporary culture circulating today. our world, jean baudrillard tells us, has been launched into hyperspace in a kind of postmodern apocalypse. the airless atmosphere has asphyxiated the referent, leaving us satellites in aimless orbit around an empty center. we breathe an ether of floating images that no longer bear a relation to any reality whatsoever.1 that, according to baudrillard, is simulation: the substitution of signs of the real for the real.2 in hyperreality, signs no longer represent or refer to an external model. they stand for nothing but themselves, and refer only to other signs. they are to some extent distinguishable, in the way the phonemes of language are, by a combinatory of minute binary distinctions.3 but postmodernism stutters. in the absence of any gravitational pull to ground them, images accelerate and tend to run together. they become interchangeable. any term can be substituted for any other: utter indetermination.4 faced with this homogeneous surface of syntagmatic slippage, we are left speechless. we can only gape in fascination.5 for the secret of the process is beyond our grasp. meaning has imploded. there is no longer any external model, but there is an immanent one. to the syntagmatic surface of slippage there corresponds an invisible paradigmatic dimension that creates those minimally differentiated signs only in order for them to blur together in a pleasureless orgy of exchange and circulation. hidden in the images is a kind of genetic code responsible for their generation.6 meaning is out of reach and out of sight, but not be cause it has receded into the distance. it is because the code has been miniaturized. objects are images, images are signs, signs are information, and information fits on a chip. everything reduces to a molecular binarism. the generalized digitality of the computerized society.7 and so we gape. we cannot be said to be passive exactly, because all polarity, including the active/passive dichotomy, has disappeared. we have no earth to center us, but we ourselves function as a ground-in the electrical sense.8 we do not act, but neither do we merely receive. we absorb through our open eyes and mouths. we neutralize the play of energized images in the mass entropy of the silent majority. it makes for a fun read. but do we really have no other choice than being a naive realist or being a sponge? deleuze and guattari open a third way. although it is never developed at l…”
Rennett, M.. (2009). Baudrillard and The Joe Schmo Show. The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies
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“Reality television is a euphemism. although audience members may believe they are seeing what happens when people stop being polite and start being real, nothing could be further from the truth. a vh1 expose, reality tv secrets revealed, divulges many of the techniques used by the producers of these shows to get the story they want including recreating actions that were not originally caught on tape, combining audio and video from separate times together, and acting out pre-planned storylines. reality tv viewers and critics, as well as television and media scholars, have debated the reality of these programs ever since the genre became a popular part of the american zeitgeist in the late 1990s. through editing techniques, the producers can exaggerate elements from an individual’s personality to construct a persona that audiences can rapidly identify. the discussion of these tactics leads me to a question: if reality television does not present reality, as it purports to do, then what is it actually showing? as jean baudrillard notes, ‘reality television [gives] the illusion of a real world, an exterior world, despite the fact that each world is the exact image of the other’ (2005:181). by using the words ‘illusion’ and ‘exact image,’ baudrillard points to reality tv programs as mere simulacra of the real world and which produce a hyperreality — not unlike his famous example of disneyland (baudrillard, 2002a:23, 96). as baudrillard argues, hyperreality is created through the process of simulation in which images of reality are turned into simulacra, copies which are so powerful that they erase the original. the constructed character personalities seen on reality tv reflect baudrillard’s discussion of simulacra. adapted from the source document.”
Baudrillard, J.. (1972). Simulacra & Simulation* precession of simulacra. Postmodern American Fiction: A Norton Anthology
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“DEFINICIÓ d’hiperrealitat: the generation by models of a real without origin or reality (pag?) o ‘a real without origin or reality’ p1”
Sir Francis Galton, was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician. He was knighted in 1909.
Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, and introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies.
He was a pioneer in eugenics, coining the term itself and the phrase “nature versus nurture”. His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.
As an investigator of the human mind, he founded psychometrics (the science of measuring mental faculties) and differential psychology and the lexical hypothesis of personality. He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science. He also conducted research on the power of prayer, concluding it had none by its null effects on the longevity of those prayed for. His quest for the scientific principles of diverse phenomena extended even to the optimal method for making tea.
A biographical summary of the pre-eminent men of Britain grouped by profession. The extensive survey draws from information including college graduation, reputation during career, fellowships, and even known relatives. Includes discussions on findings and observations as well as referenced appendices. - Summary by Leon Harvey
„We enter the Reichstag to arm ourselves with democracy’s weapons. If democracy is foolish enough to give us free railway passes and salaries, that is its problem… We are coming neither as friends or neutrals. We come as enemies! As the wolf attacks the sheep, so come we.“ — Joseph Goebbels
„The people’s community must not be a mere phrase, but a revolutionary achievement following from the radical carrying out of the basic life needs of the working class. A ruthless battle against corruption! A war against exploitation, freedom for the workers! The elimination of all economic-capitalist influences on national policy. Maintaining a rotten economic system has nothing to do with nationalism, which is an affirmation of the Fatherland.“ — Joseph Goebbels
A lesser known fact is that Goebbels stratagems were “inspired” by Edward Bernays (who authored the book entitled “Propaganda” in 1928).
Bernays stated the following in his 1965 autobiography:
They were using my books as the basis for a destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany. This shocked me, but I knew any human activity can be used for social purposes or misused for antisocial ones.
Doob, L. W.. (1950). Goebbels’ Principles of Propaganda. Public Opinion Quarterly
“For almost a dozen years german propaganda minister goebbels was recognized as a master of his trade by those who fought and by those who acclaimed the nazi state. this article, based on both the published and unpublished portions of goebbels’ diary, summarizes the major propaganda principles which he followed.”
Meyer, M., & Welch, D.. (2006). Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933-1945. The History Teacher
“This is the most comprehensive analysis to date of nazi film propaganda in its political, social, and economic contexts, from the pre-war cinema as it fell under the control of the propaganda minister, joseph goebbels, through to the end of the second world war. david welch studies more than one hundred films of all types, identifying those aspects of nazi ideology that were concealed in the framework of popular entertainment.”
Propaganda and mass persuasion: a historical encyclopedia, 1500 to the present. (2013). Choice Reviews Online
“This fascinating survey provides a comprehensive introduction to propaganda, its changing nature, its practitioners, and its impact on the past five centuries of world history. written by leading experts, it covers the masters of the art from joseph goebbels to mohandas gandhi and examines enormously influential works of persuasion such as ‘uncle tom’s cabin,’ techniques such as films and posters, and key concepts like black propaganda and brainwashing. case studies reveal the role of mass persuasion during the reformation, and wars throughout history. regional studies cover propaganda superpowers, such as russia, china, and the united states, as well as little-known propaganda campaigns in southeast asia, ireland, and scandinavia. the book traces the evolution of propaganda from the era of printed handbills to computer fakery, and profiles such brilliant practitioners of the art as third reich film director leni riefenstahl and 19th-century cartoonist thomas nast, whose works helped to bring the notorious boss tweed to justice.”
Herf, J.. (2005). The “jewish War”: Goebbels and the antisemitic campaigns of the Nazi propaganda ministry. Holocaust and Genocide Studies
“How the nazi leadership translated radical antisemitism into a narrative of an innocent, besieged germany striking back at an ‘international jewry’ it accused of starting and prolonging world war ii forms the subject of this study. in the nazis’ paranoid conspiracy theory ‘jewry’ comprised powers behind the scenes in london, moscow, and washington. in response to the ‘war of extermination’ that jewry had supposedly launched against germany, the nazi leadership publicly threatened to ‘exterminate’ and ‘annihilate’ the jews as an act of justified retaliation. in their minds and in their policy, the ideological connection between the ‘final solution’ and the second world war was inherent, rather than contingent. the following analysis suggests why a centuries-old hatred led to mass murder between 1941 and 1945.”
Welch, D.. (1993). Manufacturing a consensus: Nazi propaganda and the building of a ‘national community’ (volksgemeinschaft). Contemporary European History
“The point has to be made at once that any attempt to quantify public reaction to nazi propaganda is fraught with difficulties. accurate measurement of the effectiveness of nazi propaganda is weakened by the absence of public opinion surveys and the fact that, in a society that resorted so readily to coercions and terror, reported opinion did not necessarily reflect the true feelings and moods of the public, especially if these views were opposed to the regime. nevertheless, to state that public opinion in the third reich ceased to exist is not strictly true. after the nazi ‘seizure of power’ in 1933, propaganda minister joseph goebbels stressed the importance of co-ordinating propaganda with other activities. in a dictatorship, propaganda must address itself to large masses of people and attempt to move them to a uniformity of opinion and action. but the nazis also understood that propaganda is of little value in isolation. to some extent this explains why goebbels impressed on all his staff at the ministry of popular enlightenment and propaganda the imperative necessity constantly to gauge public moods. goebbels therefore regularly received (as did all the ruling élites) extraordinarily detailed reports from the secret police (sd reports) about the mood of the people and would frequently quote these in his diary. hitler, too, was familiar with these reports, and his recorded determination to avoid increasing food prices at all costs for fear that this would undermine the regime’s popularity suggests a political sensitivity to public opinion. to assure themselves of continued popular support was an unwavering concern of the nazi leadership, and of hitler and goebbels in particular.”
Take first the question of food and population. At present
the population of the globe is increasing at the rate of about
20 millions a year. Most of this increase is in Russia and
Southeast Asia. The population of Western Europe and
the United States is nearly stationary. Meanwhile, the food
supply of the world as a whole threatens to diminish, as a
result of unwise methods of cultivation and destruction of
forests. This is an explosive situation. Left to itself, it must
lead to a food shortage and thence to a world war. Technique,
however, makes other issues possible.
Vital statistics in the West are dominated by medicine
and birth control: the one diminishes the deaths, the other
the births. The result is that the average age in the West
increases: there is a smaller percentage of young people and
a larger percentage of old people. Some people consider that
this must have unfortunate results, but speaking as an old
person, I am not sure.
The danger of a world shortage of food may be averted
for a time by improvements in the technique of agriculture.
But, if population continues to increase at the present rate,
such improvements cannot long suffice. There will then be
two groups, one poor with an increasing population, the
other rich with a stationary population. Such a situation can
hardly fail to lead to world war. If there is not to be an
endless succession of wars, population will have to become
stationary throughout the world, and this will probably have
to be done, in many countries, as a result of governmental
measures. This will require an extension of scientific tech-
nique into very intimate matters. There are, however, two
other possibilities. War may become so destructive that, at
any rate for a time, there is no danger of overpopulation; or
the scientific nations may be defeated and anarchy may de-
stroy scientific technique.
Biology is likely to affect human life through the study of
heredity. Without science, men have changed domestic
animals and food plants enormously in advantageous ways.
It may be assumed that they will change them much more,
and much more quickly, by bringing the science of genetics
to bear. Perhaps, even, it may become possible artificially to
induce desirable mutations in genes. (Hitherto the only muta-
tions that can be artificially caused are neutral or harmful.)
In any case, it is pretty certain that scientific technique will
very soon effect great improvements in the animals and
plants that are useful to man.
When such methods of modifying the congenital character
of animals and plants have been pursued long enough to make
their success obvious, it is probable that there will be a
powerful movement for applying scientific methods to human
propagation. There would at first be strong religious and
emotional obstacles to the adoption of such a policy. But sup-
pose (say) Russia were able to overcome these obstacles
and to breed a race stronger, more intelligent, and more
resistant to disease than any race of men that has hitherto
existed, and suppose the other nations perceived that unless
they followed suit they would be defeated in war, then either
the other nations would voluntarily forgo their prejudices, or,
after defeat, they would be compelled to forgo them. Any
scientific technique, however beastly, is bound to spread if
it is useful in war— until such time as men decide that they have
had enough of war and will henceforth live in peace. As
that day does not seem to be at hand, scientific breeding of
human beings must be expected to come about. I shall return
to this subject in a later chapter.
Physiology and psychology afford fields for scientific tech-
nique which still await development. Two great men, Pavlov
and Freud, have laid the foundation. I do not accept the view
that they are in any essential conflict, but what structure
will be built on their foundations is still in doubt.
I think the subject which will be of most importance polit-
ically is mass psychology. Mass psychology is, scientifically
speaking, not a very advanced study, and so far its professors
have not been in universities: they have been advertisers,
politicians, and, above all, dictators. This study is immensely
useful to practical men, whether they wish to become rich
or to acquire the government. It is, of course, as a science,
founded upon individual psychology, but hitherto it has
employed rule-of-thumb methods which were based upon a
kind of intuitive common sense. Its importance has been
enormously increased by the growth of modern methods of
propaganda. Of these the most influential is what is called
"education." Religion plays a part, though a diminishing one;
the press, the cinema, and the radio play an increasing part.
What is essential in mass psychology is the art of per-
suasion. If you compare a speech of Hitler's with a speech of
(say) Edmund Burke, you will see what strides have been
made in the art since the eighteenth century. What went
wrong formerly was that people had read in books that man
is a rational animal, and framed their arguments on this
hypothesis. We now know that limelight and a brass band
do more to persuade than can be done by the most elegant
train of syllogisms. It may be hoped that in time anybody will
be able to persuade anybody of anything if he can catch
the patient young and is provided by the State with money
“Erich seligmann fromm (march 23, 1900 – march 18, 1980) was a german social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher, and democratic socialist. he was associated with what became known as the frankfurt school of critical theory.”
McLaughlin, N.. (1998). How to become a forgotten intellectual: Intellectual movements and the rise and fall of Erich Fromm. Sociological Forum
“The ideas and reputational history of german psychoanalyst and sociologist erich fromm are examined as a case study in the sociology of knowledge that explores how intellectual boundaries are constructed within and between disciplines in the modem academy, psychoanalytic institutes, and the journal and book reading publics and among the intellectual elite. the ‘rise and fall’ of erich fromm is narrated using the foil of michèle lamont’s analysis of how derrida became a dominant philosopher and influence on literary criticism. the example of how fromm became a forgotten intellectual is used to examine various models of how reputations are constructed. my analysis highlights the importance of the sectlike culture of psychoanalysis and marxism as well as the boundary-maintaining processes of academic disciplines, schools of thought, and intellectual traditions, and suggests a research agenda on orthodoxies and revisionism within intellectual movements more generally. [abstract from author]”
Fromm, E.. (2004). 1929a-e Erich Fromm Psychoanalysis and Sociology. English
“Erich fromm (1900-1980) was once a world-famous psychoanalyst and sociologist. his writings, spanning six decades, placed him among the most prolific and well-known analysts of his generation. in this paper, we outline fromm’s major themes and theoretical contributions. his unique attempts to synthesize depth psychology and a critical perspective on modern social forces make his work central to social work’s mission of alleviating oppression, fostering social justice, and facilitating emotional healing and personal growth. in resurrecting fromm, we hope to stimulate thought about some of the complex theoretical problems that inform practice.”
Brookfield, S.. (2002). Overcoming alienation as the practice of adult education: The contribution of Erich Fromm to a critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education Quarterly
“Erich fromm’s analysis of the commodification of contemporary life, his description of automation conformity, and his call for the overcoming of alienation represent important, though ignored. elements of the critical tradition that have great resonance for the practice of adult education. drawing particularly on the early marx of the economic and philosophical manuscripts. fromm conducted a radical, yet highly accessible, analysis of adult life and learning. he argued that learning to penetrate ideological obfuscation, and thereby overcome the alienation this obfuscation induced, was the learning task of adulthood. adult education as a force for resistance would make people aware of ideological manipulation and educate them for participatory democracy. by calling his ideas humanist, fromm ensured that his work beckoned enticingly to many educators. but his normative humanism was a militant, marxist humanism, entailing the abolition of capitalist alienation and the creation of democratic socialism. 10.1177/0741713602052002002”
Davis, H. B.. (2003). Erich Fromm and postmodernism.. Psychoanalytic Review
“While there has been some renewed interest in fromm, he has largely been neglected in the past years. i believe this is in part due to the conservative nature of political and intellectual ideas in recent years, but also because postmodernist thinking may be essentially-but not totally- inconsistent with fromm. there may be an inherent difficulty in comparing fromm’s ideas to postmodernism and its use in psychoanalysis since the two are of different time periods. i am primarily concerned with exploring selected concepts from fromm which, if not a forerunner of postmodernism in psychoanalysis, may at least have sown the seeds for the contemporary view. in discussing several postmodern ideas such as contextualization, the self, universalism, and meta-narratives, among others, i will relate fromm’s position on these issues. in his day fromm was an exponent of some of the ideas currently viewed as affirmative postmodernism. his ideas were opposed to the established orthodoxy of his day, as many of the affirmative postmodernists are today. by saying that fromm dealt with some of these issues i do not mean that the current viewpoint is simply an extension of fromm’s writings. (psycinfo database record (c) 2012 apa, all rights reserved)”
Dr. Tharoor delivers a lecture, entitled ‘Looking Back at the British Raj in India’, and discuses how the British empire ruthlessly has exploited and devastated India. He cogently argues that the British have to pay reparations to India.
Cohn, B. S.. (1996). Colonialism and its forms of knowledge : the British in India. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press
“A very interesting and important book. after reading it, we begin thinking about the colonial theater in a different way.this book analyses the interconnections between the empire and india and the indian’s influences to the rag. people who studies about these subjects must read this book.”
Smith, D. L.. (1999). English and the Discourses of Colonialism. Asian Englishes
“English and the discourses of colonialism opens with the british departure from hong kong marking the end of british colonialism. yet alastair pennycook argues that this dramatic exit masks the crucial issue that the traces left by colonialism run deep. this challenging and provocative book looks particularly at english, english language teaching, and colonialism. it reveals how the practice of colonialism permeated the cultures and discourses of both the colonial and colonized nations, the effects of which are still evident today. pennycook explores the extent to which english is, as commonly assumed, a language of neutrality and global communication, and to what extent it is, by contrast, a language laden with meanings and still weighed down with colonial discourses that have come to adhere to it. travel writing, newspaper articles and popular books on english, are all referred to, as well as personal experiences and interviews with learners of english in india, malaysia, china and australia. pennycook concludes by appealing to postcolonial writing, to create a politics of opposition and dislodge the discourses of colonialism from english.”
Bernhard, M., Reenock, C., & Nordstrom, T.. (2004). The legacy of western overseas colonialism on democratic survival. International Studies Quarterly
“Using an original dataset that covers the period from 1951 to 1995, we consider the enduring effects of western overseas colonialism on the democratic survival of postcolonial democracies. we treat colonialism as a holistic phenomenon and differentiate the relative effects of its legacies with regard to the level of economic development, social fragmentation, and the relationship between the state and civil society. we find that western overseas colonialism, a factor often overlooked in recent large-n studies, continues to have an effect on the survival of democratic regimes. we further find that the legacy of specific colonial powers has an important effect on survival as well. unlike previous studies, we find that former spanish colonies outperform british colonies when colonialism is conceptualized holistically. however, when we break colonial legacy into separate components (development, social fragmentation, and the relationship between the state and civil society), we find that the advantages former british colonies enjoy are attributable to the legacy of the state/civil society relationship. moreover, we show that at least in the case of former british colonies, time spent under colonial rule is positively associated with democratic survival.”
Author, B., & Gilmartin, D.. (1994). Scientific Empire and Imperial Science: Colonialism and Irrigation Technology in the Indus. Source: The Journal of Asian Studies
“DAVID gilmartin analyzes a conflict within the british colonial administration of india. it pitted those british responsible for the development of irrigation works in the punjab against other officials responsible for the regular administration of the same territory. the british engineers, who are represented by the ‘imperial science’ in gilmartin’s title, proposed a modern hydro-irrigation system based on the conception of dominating and controlling nature. the british administrators, who represent gilmartin’s ‘scientific empire,’ opposed these technocratic schemes based on their carefully collected, organized, and analyzed data about the local society. the administrators, unlike the technocrats, saw domination and control of the indian population as their main goal. gilmartin concludes that these differences were not settled in the late nineteenth or early twentieth centuries, even though the technocratic arguments became increasingly powerful. instead, he believes that postcolonial india has inherited these two ‘discourses’ as part of its heritage from the british raj.”
Arnold, D.. (1986). Cholera and colonialism in British India. Past and Present