3D Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles for Cloud Seeding – Patent US 2022/0002159 A1


Geoengineering Affects You, Your Environment, and Your Loved Ones

mRNA ≠ modRNA

IBM: Computerised crimes against humanity

See also: Edwin Black – IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (2002)


In December 2023, IBM released Quatum System 2


Version 1


Benthams Panopticon


Further References

  • Arendt, Hannah, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, New York:Viking Penguin, Inc., 1963; Penguin Books, 1965.
  • Armanski, Gerhard, Maschinen des Terrors: Das Lager (KZ und GULAG) in der Moderne. Munster: Verlag Westfalisches Dampfboot, 1993.
  • Austrian, Geoffrey D. Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  • Baumgartner, Andreas. Die vergessenen Frauen von Mauthausen: Die weiblichen Haftlinge des Konzentrationslagers Mauthausen und ihre Geschichte. Wien: Verlag Osterreich, 1997.
  • Barker, Kenneth, ed. The NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1995.
  • Belden, Thomas Graham and Marva Robins Belden. The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson. Boston: Litde, Brown and Company, 1962.
  • Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know. Boston: Litde, Brown and Company, 1993.
  • Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact Between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine. New York: Macmillan, 1984; Chicago: Dialog Press, 1999.
  • Borkin, Joseph. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben. New York: The Free Press, 1978.
  • Bradsher, Greg, comp. Holocaust-Era Assets: A Finding Aid to Records at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland. National Archives and Records Administration, 1999.
  • Breitman, Richard. Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.
  • Browning, Christopher R. The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Brynen, Rex. Sanctuary and Survival: The PLO in Lebanon. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.
  • Burleigh, Michael. Death and Deliverance: ‘Euthanasia’ in Germany,’ 1900-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Carmille, Robert. Des Apparences A La Realite: Mise au Point, Le “Fichier Juif”: Rapport de la Commission presidee par Rene Remond au Premier Ministre, 1996.
  • Centre Historique des Archives Nationales. Inventaire des Archives du Commissariat General aux Questions Juives et du Service de Restitution des Biens des Victimes des Lois et Mesures de Spoliation. Paris: Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, 1998.
  • Choldin, Harvey M. Looking for the Last Percent: The Controversy Over Census Undercounts. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
  • Clements, Bruce. From Ice Set Free: The Story of Otto Kiep. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1972.
  • Connolly, James. History of Computing in Europe. IBM World Trade Corporation, circa 1967.
  • Cortada, James W Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865-1956. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  • Dassbach, Carl H. A. Global Enterprises and the World Economy: Ford General Motors, and IBM, the Emergence of the Transnational Enterprise. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1989.
  • De Jong, L. Het Koninkrijk in de Tweede Wereldoorlog Vol. 3: Mai 1940, ‘s Gravenhage, 1970.
  • De Jong, L. Holland Fights the Nazis. London: Lindsay Drummon.
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1972.
  • van den Ende, Jan, Knopen, kaarten en chips: De geschiedenis van de automatisering bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Amsterdam, 1991.
  • Engelbourg, Saul. International Business Machines: A Business History. Arno Press, 1976.
  • Erwich, B. and J.G.S.J. van Maarseveen, eds., Een eeuw statistieken: Historisch-Methodologische schetsen van de Nederlandse officiële statistieken in de Twintigste eeuw, Amsterdam, 1999.
  • Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide: National Responses and Jewish Victimization During the Holocaust. New York: The Free Press, 1979.
  • Ferencz, Benjamin B. Less Than Slaves: Jewish Forced Labor and the Quest for Compensation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
  • Foy, Nancy, The Sun Never Sets on IBM, New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1975.
  • Flint, Charles R. Memories of an Active Life: Men, and Ships, and Sealing Wax, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1923.
  • Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
  • Friedlander, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews. Volume 1: The Years of Persecution. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
  • Garr, Doug. Lou Gerstner and the Business Turnaround of the Decade. New York: HarperCollins 1999.
  • Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985.
  • Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996; Vintage Books, 1997.
  • Gutman, Israel. Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994.
  • Gutman, Yisrael and Michael Berenbaum, eds. Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994; published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C.
  • Haft, Cynthia J. The Bargain and the Bridle: The General Union of the Israelites of France, 1941-1944. Chicago: Dialog Press, 1983.
  • Herzberg, Abel J. Between Two Streams: A Diary from Bergen-Belsen. Translated by Jack Santcross. New York: IB. Tauris.
  • Hilberg, Raul, ed. Documents of Destruction: Germany and Jewry 1933-1945. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, Inc., 1971.
  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. New York: Quadrangle Books, Inc., 1961; Harper Colophon Books, 1979;
  • Hilberg, Raul, Stanislaw Staron, and Josef Kermisz, eds. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow; Prelude to Doom. Translated by Stanislaw Staron and the staff of Yad Vashem. New York: Stein and Day, 1979.
  • Hirschfeld, Gerhard. Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboration: The Netherlands Under German Occupation, 1940-1945. Translated by Louise Willmot. New York: Berg, 1988.
  • Hoess, Rudolf. Commandant of Auschwitz: The Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess. Translated by Constantine FitzGibbon. New York: Popular Library, 1959.
  • Ioanid, Radu. The Holocaust in Romania: The Destruction of Jews and Gypsies Under the Antonescu Regime, 1940-1944. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2000.
  • Jagendorf, Siegried. Jagendorf’s Foundry: A Memoir of the Romanian Holocaust, 1941-1944. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
  • Kahn, Annette. Le Fichier. Paris: Robert Laffont, S.A., 1993.
  • Katsh, Abraham I., ed. and translator. Scroll of Agony: The Warsaw Diary of Chaim A. Kaplan. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1965.
  • Katsh, Abraham I., ed. and translator. The Warsaw Diary of Chaim A. Kaplan. New York: Collier Books, 1973.
  • Kermish, Joseph, ed. To Live With Honor and Die With Honor: Selected Documents from the Warsaw Ghetto Underground Archives “O.S.” [“Oneg Skabbath”] Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1986.
  • Klee, Ernst. “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat: Die “Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens.” Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer Verlag GmbH 1999.
  • Kleine Chronik der IBM Deutschland, IBM Corporation, 1993.
  • Kolb, Eberhard. Bergen-Belsen: From “Detention Camp” to Concentration Camp, 1943-1945. Translated by Gregory Claeys and Christine Lattek. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1985, 1986.
  • Krausnick, Helmut, Hans Buchheim, Martin Broszat, and Hans-Adolf Jacobsen. Anatomy of the SS State. Translated by Richard Barry, Marian Jackson, and Dorothy Long. New York: Walker and Company, 1968.
  • von Lang, Jochen, ed. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. Translated by Ralph Manheim. New York: Farrar. Straus and Giroux, 1983.
  • Lewin, Abraham. A Cup of Tears: A Diary of the Warsaw Ghetto. New York: Free Press, 1988.
  • Lifton, Robert Jay. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1986.
  • Linden, Michael. IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation. New York: Crown Publishers, 2001.
  • Littman, Sol. IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation. Watson Publishing International, 2002.
  • Lochner, Louis P. What About Germany? New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1942.
  • Löwenthal, Richard. Report from Berlin. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1948.
  • Lüthy, Herbert. Der Weltkonzern IBM: Eine Unternehmensgeschichte. Berlin: Verlag Chemie, 1985.
  • McFee, Inez N., ed. IBM World Trade Corporation: World Trade Corporation Facts. IBM Corporation, 1970.
  • Medoff, Rafael. Militant Zionism in America: The Rise and Impact of the Jabotinsky Movement in the United States, 1926-1948. University of Alabama Press, 2002.
  • Mendelsohn, John and Donald G. Schilling. The IBM 360/67 and CP/CMS: Introduction and Availability of a Time Sharing System. Watson Research Center, IBM Corporation, 1967.
  • Miczek, Eva. At the Mercy of Strangers: Growing Up on the Edge of the Holocaust. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1998.
  • Minco, Marga. Het Bittere Kruid. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1957.
  • Moeller van den Bruck, Arthur. Das Dritte Reich. Hamburg: Verlag Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1931.

The myth of overpopulation

The land area of Texas is approximately 695,662 square kilometers, and the estimated global population is around 7.9 billion people.

Land area of Texas: approximately 695,662 square kilometers
Global population: approximately 7.9 billion people (as of January 2022)

Now, calculate the average land area per person:

Average Land Area per Person = Land Area of Texas / Global Population

Substitute in the values:

Average Land Area per Person ≈ 0.088 square kilometers/person

Converting to square meters:

Average Land Area per Person (in square meters) ≈ 88 square meters/person

So, on average, if you were to distribute the land area of Texas equally among the global population, each person would have approximately 88 square meters of land.


The nothing to hide argument states that individuals have no reason to fear or oppose surveillance programs unless they are afraid it will uncover their own illicit activities. An individual using this argument may claim that an average person should not worry about government surveillance, as they would have “nothing to hide”.

Edward Snowden aptly challenges this notion, stating, “Saying, ‘I don’t care about privacy because I have nothing to hide,’ is like saying, ‘I don’t care about freedom of speech because I have nothing to say.’

See also: patents.google.com/patent/US20160259308A1/en (Smart-home automation system that suggests or autmatically implements selected household policies based on sensed observations)

Further References

Sacks, E.. (2018). Alexa privacy fail highlights risks of smart speakers. NBC News
Furey, E., & Blue, J.. (2018). Alexa, Emotions, Privacy and GDPR

Plain numerical DOI: 10.14236/ewic/hci2018.212
directSciHub download

Mittal, M., & Manocha, S.. (2022). Alexa! Examine privacy perception and acceptance of voice-based artificial intelligence among digital natives. Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/02522667.2022.2134367
directSciHub download

Combs, M., Hazelwood, C., & Joyce, R.. (2022). Are you listening? – an observational wake word privacy study. Organizational Cybersecurity Journal: Practice, Process and People

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/ocj-12-2021-0036
directSciHub download

Xie, F., Zhang, Y., Yan, C., Li, S., Bu, L., Chen, K., … Bai, G.. (2022). Scrutinizing Privacy Policy Compliance of Virtual Personal Assistant Apps. In ACM International Conference Proceeding Series

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3551349.3560416
directSciHub download

Major, D., Huang, D. Y., Chetty, M., & Feamster, N.. (2022). Alexa, Who Am i Speaking To?: Understanding Users’ Ability to Identify Third-Party Apps on Amazon Alexa. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3446389
directSciHub download

Maccario, G., & Naldi, M.. (2023). Alexa, Is My Data Safe? The (Ir)relevance of Privacy in Smart Speakers Reviews. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2022.2058780
directSciHub download

Vimalkumar, M., Sharma, S. K., Singh, J. B., & Dwivedi, Y. K.. (2021). ‘Okay google, what about my privacy?’: User’s privacy perceptions and acceptance of voice based digital assistants. Computers in Human Behavior

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2021.106763
directSciHub download

Loideain, N. N., & Adams, R.. (2020). From Alexa to Siri and the GDPR: The gendering of Virtual Personal Assistants and the role of Data Protection Impact Assessments. Computer Law and Security Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.clsr.2019.105366
directSciHub download

Bianco, S., Celona, L., Ciocca, G., Marelli, D., Napoletano, P., Yu, S., & Schettini, R.. (2021). A smart mirror for emotion monitoring in home environments. Sensors

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/s21227453
directSciHub download

Chung, J., Bleich, M., Wheeler, D. C., Winship, J. M., McDowell, B., Baker, D., & Parsons, P.. (2021). Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Voice-Operated Smart Speakers Among Low-Income Senior Housing Residents: Comparison of Pre- and Post-Installation Surveys. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/23337214211005869
directSciHub download

Sweeney, M. E., & Davis, E.. (2020). Alexa, are you listening?: An exploration of smart voice assistant use and privacy in libraries. Information Technology and Libraries

Plain numerical DOI: 10.6017/ITAL.V39I4.12363
directSciHub download

Sun, K., Chen, C., & Zhang, X.. (2020). “alexa, stop spying on me!”: Speech privacy protection against voice assistants. In SenSys 2020 – Proceedings of the 2020 18th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3384419.3430727
directSciHub download

Neville, S. J.. (2021). The domestication of privacy-invasive technology on YouTube: Unboxing the Amazon Echo with the online warm expert. Convergence

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1354856520970729
directSciHub download

Abdi, N., Zhan, X., Ramokapane, K. M., & Such, J.. (2021). Privacy norms for smart home personal assistants. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – Proceedings

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3411764.3445122
directSciHub download

Fortunati, L., Edwards, A., Manganelli, A. M., Edwards, C., & de Luca, F.. (2022). Do People Perceive Alexa as Gendered? A Cross-Cultural Study of People’s Perceptions, Expectations, and Desires of Alexa. Human-Machine Communication

Plain numerical DOI: 10.30658/hmc.5.3
directSciHub download

Edu, J., Ferrer-Aran, X., Such, J., & Suarez-Tangil, G.. (2022). Measuring Alexa Skill Privacy Practices across Three Years. In WWW 2022 – Proceedings of the ACM Web Conference 2022

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3485447.3512289
directSciHub download

Jonathan Leblang. (2018). Alexa Privacy and Data Handling Overview. Amazon Web Services
Edwards, H. S.. (2017). Alexa Takes the Stand: Listening Devices Raise Privacy Issues.. Time
Schönherr, L., Golla, M., Eisenhofer, T., Wiele, J., Kolossa, D., & Holz, T.. (2022). Exploring accidental triggers of smart speakers. Computer Speech and Language

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.csl.2021.101328
directSciHub download

Cho, E., Motalebi, N., Sundar, S. S., & Abdullah, S.. (2022). Alexa as an Active Listener: How Backchanneling Can Elicit Self-Disclosure and Promote User Experience. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3555164
directSciHub download

Lentzsch, C., Shah, S. J., Andow, B., Degeling, M., Das, A., & Enck, W.. (2021). Hey Alexa, is this Skill Safe?: Taking a Closer Look at the Alexa Skill Ecosystem

Plain numerical DOI: 10.14722/ndss.2021.23111
directSciHub download

Lau, J., Zimmerman, B., & Schaub, F.. (2018). “Alexa, Stop Recording”: Mismatches between Smart Speaker Privacy Controls and User Needs. 14th Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS 2018)
Hyma, J., Rama Krishna Murty, M., & Naveen, A.. (2021). Personalized privacy assistant for digital voice assistants: Case study on Amazon Alexa. International Journal of Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Engineering Systems

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3233/KES-210071
directSciHub download

Kim, J., Erdem, M., & Kim, B.. (2023). Hi Alexa, do hotel guests have privacy concerns with you?: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/19368623.2023.2251157
directSciHub download

Ford, M., & Palmer, W.. (2019). Alexa, are you listening to me? An analysis of Alexa voice service network traffic. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00779-018-1174-x
directSciHub download

Uysal, E., Alavi, S., & Bezençon, V.. (2022). Trojan horse or useful helper? A relationship perspective on artificial intelligence assistants with humanlike features. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11747-022-00856-9
directSciHub download

Lit, Y., Kim, S., & Sy, E.. (2021). A survey on amazon alexa attack surfaces. In 2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2021

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/CCNC49032.2021.9369553
directSciHub download

Neville, S. J.. (2020). Eavesmining: A critical audit of the amazon echo and alexa conditions of use. Surveillance and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.24908/ss.v18i3.13426
directSciHub download

Edu, J. S., Such, J. M., & Suarez-Tangil, G.. (2021). Smart Home Personal Assistants: A Security and Privacy Review. ACM Computing Surveys

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3412383
directSciHub download

Gieselmann, M., & Sassenberg, K.. (2022). The More Competent, the Better? The Effects of Perceived Competencies on Disclosure Towards Conversational Artificial Intelligence. Social Science Computer Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/08944393221142787
directSciHub download

Mou, Y., & Meng, X.. (2023). Alexa, it is creeping over me – Exploring the impact of privacy concerns on consumer resistance to intelligent voice assistants. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/APJML-10-2022-0869
directSciHub download

Developing a Measure of Social, Ethical, and Legal Content for Intelligent Cognitive Assistants. (2021). Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability

Plain numerical DOI: 10.33423/jsis.v16i3.4438
directSciHub download

Liu, Y., Xiang, Z., Seong, E. J., Kapadia, A., & Williamson, D. S.. (2021). Defending Against Microphone-Based Attacks with Personalized Noise. Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2478/popets-2021-0021
directSciHub download

Javed, Y., Sethi, S., & Jadoun, A.. (2019). Alexa’s voice recording behavior: A survey of user understanding and awareness. In ACM International Conference Proceeding Series

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3339252.3340330
directSciHub download

Munn, L.. (2019). “ALEXA, CAN I TRUST YOU?”: SMALL SISTERS AND FRIENDLY POWER. AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5210/spir.v2019i0.11012
directSciHub download

Martínez, D., Calle, E., Jové, A., & Pérez-Solà, C.. (2022). Web-tracking compliance: websites’ level of confidence in the use of information-gathering technologies: Web-tracking level of confidence. Computers and Security

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.cose.2022.102873
directSciHub download

Ahmad, I., Akter, T., Buher, Z., Farzan, R., Kapadia, A., & Lee, A. J.. (2022). Tangible Privacy for Smart Voice Assistants: Bystanders’ Perceptions of Physical Device Controls. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3555089
directSciHub download

Oliveira, G. G. de, Lizarelli, F. L., Teixeira, J. G., & Mendes, G. H. de S.. (2023). Curb your enthusiasm: Examining the customer experience with Alexa and its marketing outcomes. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2022.103220
directSciHub download

Pal, D., Babakerkhell, M. D., & Zhang, X.. (2021). Exploring the Determinants of Users’ Continuance Usage Intention of Smart Voice Assistants. IEEE Access

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3132399
directSciHub download

Burkett, C. B.. (2018). “I Call Alexa to the Stand”: The Privacy Implications of Anthropomorphizing Virtual Assistants Accompanying Smart-Home Technology. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law
Gupta, A., & Mishra, M.. (2022). Ethical Concerns While Using Artificial Intelligence in Recruitment of Employees. Business Ethics and Leadership

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21272/bel.6(2).6-11.2022
directSciHub download

Natale, S., & Cooke, H.. (2021). Browsing with Alexa: Interrogating the impact of voice assistants as web interfaces. Media, Culture and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0163443720983295
directSciHub download

Oulousian, E., Chung, S. H., Ganni, E., Razaghizad, A., Zhang, G., Avram, R., & Sharma, A.. (2023). Voice-Based Screening for SARS-CoV-2 Exposure in Cardiovascular Clinics (VOICE-COVID-19-II): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2196/41209
directSciHub download

Sabir, A., Lafontaine, E., & Das, A.. (2022). Hey Alexa, Who Am I Talking to?: Analyzing Users’ Perception and Awareness Regarding Third-party Alexa Skills. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – Proceedings

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/3491102.3517510
directSciHub download

Chubb, J., Missaoui, S., Concannon, S., Maloney, L., & Walker, J. A.. (2022). Interactive storytelling for children: A case-study of design and development considerations for ethical conversational AI. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2021.100403
directSciHub download

Jang, D., Jhala, R., Lerner, S., & Shacham, H.. (2010). An empirical study of privacy-violating information flows in JavaScript web applications. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/1866307.1866339
directSciHub download

ZENOR, J.. (2021). If you see something, say something: Can artificial intelligence have a duty to report dangerous behavior in the home?. Denver Law Review

Interdisciplinary richness

“It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.”
~ Aristotle

“It is the custom among those who are called ‘practical’ men to condemn any man capable of a wide survey as a visionary: no man is thought worthy of a voice in politics unless he ignores or does not know nine-tenths of the most important relevant facts.”
~ Lord Bertrand Russel

Interdisciplinary knowledge and research are important because:

  1. Creativity often requires interdisciplinary knowledge.
  2. Immigrants often make important contributions to their new field.
  3. Disciplinarians often commit errors which can be best detected by people familiar with two or more disciplines.
  4. Some worthwhile topics of research fall in the interstices among the traditional disciplines.
  5. Many intellectual, social, and practical problems require interdisciplinary approaches.
  6. Interdisciplinary knowledge and research serve to remind us of the unity-of-knowledge ideal.
  7. Interdisciplinarians enjoy greater flexibility in their research.
  8. More so than narrow disciplinarians, interdisciplinarians often treat themselves to the intellectual equivalent of traveling in new lands.
  9. Interdisciplinarians may help breach communication gaps in the modern academy, thereby helping to mobilize its enormous intellectual resources in the cause of greater social rationality and justice.
  10. By bridging fragmented disciplines, interdisciplinarians might play a role in the defense of academic freedom. and cognitive liberty.

The frequently-encountered wholesale dismissal of either interdisciplinary knowledge or research reflects a profound misunderstanding of their vital contributions to scholarship, society, and individuals. This article presents the only self-contained, comprehensive defense of interdisciplinary knowledge and research, arguing that they are important because: 1. Creativity often requires interdisciplinary knowledge. 2. Immigrants often make important contributions to their new field. 3. Disciplinarians often commit errors which can be best detected by people familiar with two or more disciplines. 4. Some worthwhile topics of research fall in the interstices among the traditional disciplines. 5. Many intellectual, social, and practical problems require interdisciplinary approaches. 6. Interdisciplinary knowledge and research serve to remind us of the unity-of-knowledge ideal. 7. Interdisciplinarians enjoy greater flexibility in their research. 8. More so than narrow disciplinarians, interdisciplinarians often treat themselves to the intellectual equivalent of traveling in new lands. 9. Interdisciplinarians may help breach communication gaps in the modern academy, thereby helping to mobilize its enormous intellectual resources in the cause of greater social rationality and justice. 10. By bridging fragmented disciplines, interdisciplinarians might play a role in the defense of academic freedom. The case against interdisciplinary knowledge and research is made up of many intrinsic drawbacks and practical barriers. Taken together, these rewards, drawbacks, and barriers suggest a mild shift in the contemporary world of learning towards interdisciplinary knowledge and research.

Source: www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1016/S0362-3319%2897%2990051-3

Population Density and Social Pathology (Calhoun, 1962)

Calhoun, J. B. A method of self-control of population growth among mammals living in the wild. Science, 1949, 109, 333-335.
Calhoun, J. B. The study of wild animals under controlled conditions. Annals of the New York Acadeluy of Science, 1950, 51, 1113-1122.
Calhoun, J. B. The social aspects of population dynamics. Journal of Mammalog, 1952, vol.33, no.2, 139-159.
Calhoun, J. B. Population density and social pathology. Scientific America, 1962, 206 (2). 139-148.

N.B.: Humans beings do not behave like rodents (at least some do not). Humans (can) have morals and ethics. Moreover, humans (can) have consciousness and free will. Comparative research is subject to considerable limitations and external validity (generalisability) is a methodological problem with regard to animal studies and complex social behaviour. Conclusions based on animal studies need to be cross validated.

During the early 1960s, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) procured land in a rural area near Poolesville, Maryland, where a facility was constructed to accommodate various research projects, including those led by Calhoun. It was on this property that Calhoun conducted his renowned experiment, known as the mouse universes, with the most notable being universe 25.

In July 1968, the experiment began with the introduction of four pairs of mice into a specially designed habitat. The habitat, measuring 9 feet (2.7 m) square with 4.5-foot-high (1.4 m) sides, featured four groups of four vertical wire mesh “tunnels” on each side. These tunnels provided access to nesting boxes, food hoppers, and water dispensers. Despite ample provisions such as food, water, and nesting materials, and the absence of predators, the primary challenge imposed was the spatial constraint.

Initially, the population exhibited rapid growth, doubling every 55 days, and reached 620 by day 315. However, the pace of growth significantly slowed thereafter, with doubling occurring only every 145 days. Despite the experimental capacity for up to 3840 mice in nesting space, the final population on day 600 was a mere 2200. During the period between day 315 and day 600, a breakdown in social structure and normal behaviors became evident.

Noteworthy aberrations in behavior included premature expulsion of young before weaning, injuries to the young, increased homosexual behavior, inability of dominant males to defend their territory and females, aggressive actions by females, and heightened attacks among non-dominant males. After day 600, the social breakdown persisted, leading to a decline toward extinction. Females ceased reproduction, and males adopted solitary pursuits, avoiding courtship and combat. These males, termed “the beautiful ones,” focused solely on essential tasks like eating, drinking, sleeping, and grooming, displaying sleek, healthy coats and an absence of scars.

The study’s conclusions highlighted that when all available space is occupied, and social roles are filled, competition and stress induce a complete breakdown in complex social behaviors, ultimately leading to population demise. Calhoun viewed the fate of the mouse population as a metaphor for the potential fate of humanity, describing the social breakdown as a “second death” akin to the Biblical concept mentioned in Revelation 2:11.

Calhoun’s study has been cited by authors like Bill Perkins as a cautionary tale about the dangers of living in an “increasingly crowded and impersonal world.” However, interpretations varied, with medical historian Edmund Ramsden suggesting that the mouse society’s decline resulted from excessive social interaction rather than density alone. Another perspective proposed a fair distribution problem rather than a population issue in the mouse universe.

“At the experiments’ end, the only animals still alive had survived at an immense psychological cost: asexual and utterly withdrawn, they clustered in a vacant huddled mass […] In the words of one of Calhoun’s collaborators, rodent “utopia” had descended into ‘hell’.”
— Edmund Ramsden