Minding Rights: Mapping Ethical and Legal Foundations of ‘Neurorights’


The rise of neurotechnologies, especially in combination with artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods for brain data analytics, has given rise to concerns around the protection of mental privacy, mental integrity and cognitive liberty – often framed as “neurorights” in ethical, legal, and policy discussions. Several states are now looking at including neurorights into their constitutional legal frameworks, and international institutions and organizations, such as UNESCO and the Council of Europe, are taking an active interest in developing international policy and governance guidelines on this issue. However, in many discussions of neurorights the philosophical assumptions, ethical frames of reference and legal interpretation are either not made explicit or conflict with each other. The aim of this multidisciplinary work is to provide conceptual, ethical, and legal foundations that allow for facilitating a common minimalist conceptual understanding of mental privacy, mental integrity, and cognitive liberty to facilitate scholarly, legal, and policy discussions.

Source: www.cambridge.org/core/journals/cambridge-quarterly-of-healthcare-ethics/article/minding-rights-mapping-ethical-and-legal-foundations-of-neurorights/2F3BD282956047E1E67AA9049A2A0B68

Further References

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See note 77, Harris 2018, at 595. See, for example, EComHR 7 April 1994, appl.no. 20871/92 (Strohal/Austria); ECtHR (GC) 3 April 2012, appl.no. 41723/06 (Gillberg/Sweden), § 86; ECtHR 23 October 2018, appl.no. 26892/12 (Wanner/Germany), § 39–42. An important note: This suggests that the right to silence has been protected by the ECtHR. The response of the ECtHR to English attacks on the right to silence suggests otherwise. One can remain silent, but adverse inferences can be drawn from the person’s silence, which does not amount to much of a protection of the right to silence. In the future we might expect the ECtHR to extend its approach by saying a person can refuse brain-based lie detection that the state wants to employ, but if the person does so, adverse inferences can be drawn from the refusal.

See note 33, Ligthart 2022; see note 1, Ligthart 2020.

See note 33, Ligthart 2022.

Sententia, W. Neuroethical considerations: Cognitive liberty and converging technologies for improving human cognition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004; 1013:221–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Bublitz, C, Cognitive liberty or the international human right to freedom of thought. In: Clausen, J, Levy, N, eds. Handbook of Neuroethics. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer; 2015:1309–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

See note 56, Farahany 2019, 2023.

See note 1, Bublitz 2020; see note 1, Ienca, Andorno 2017; see note 41, Bublitz, Merkel 2014.

Ligthart, S, Kooijmans, T, Douglas, T, Meynen, G. Closed-loop brain devices in offender rehabilitation: Autonomy, human rights, and accountability. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2021;30(4):669–80CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Kellmeyer, P, Cochrane, T, Müller, O, Mitchell, C, Ball, T, Fins, JJ, et al. The effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of persons and systems. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2016;25:623–33CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

See note 4, Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe 2019; § 21–22 (emphasis added).

See note 1, Bublitz 2020, at 397.

ECtHR 12 October 2006, appl.no. 13178/03 (Mayeka and Kaniki Mitunga/Belgium), § 83.

ECtHR (GC) 27 August 2015, appl.no. 46470/11 (Parrillo/Italy), § 153.

ECtHR (GC) 27 June 2017, appl.no. 931/13 (Satakunnan Markkinapörssi Oy and Satamedia Oy/Finland), § 137.

Either as an individual notion or as part of the right to mental integrity.

Ligthart, S, Meynen, G, Biller-Andorno, N, Kooijmans, T, Kellmeyer, P. Is virtually everything possible? The relevance of ethics and human rights for introducing extended reality in forensic psychiatry. AJOB Neuroscience 2022;13(3):144–57CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

AI on cognitive liberty: Navigating the Frontiers of Cognitive Liberty and Expanding Consciousness

In a rapidly evolving world where technology, philosophy, and personal growth intersect, the concepts of cognitive liberty and expanding consciousness have captured the attention of individuals seeking to explore the depths of their own minds. At the core of this exploration lies the quest for personal freedom, self-discovery, and a deeper understanding of the human experience. In this blog post, we’ll delve into these intriguing concepts without focusing on drug-related aspects, shedding light on the transformative journey towards mental sovereignty and ethical expansion.

**Cognitive Liberty: Claiming the Right to Our Minds**

Cognitive liberty stands as a beacon of individual sovereignty over our thoughts, beliefs, and cognitive processes. It’s about embracing the power to shape our own perspectives and pursue knowledge without constraint. This concept goes beyond legal or political rights; it encompasses the idea that our mental faculties are essential to our identity and should be protected from undue external influence.

As we discuss cognitive liberty in a broader context, it becomes clear that it encompasses more than substances. It encompasses the ability to explore diverse ideas, engage in critical thinking, and shape our perceptions independently.

**Expanding Consciousness: The Inner Odyssey**

At the heart of cognitive liberty is the pursuit of expanding consciousness. This journey, often embarked upon through practices like meditation, mindfulness, and introspection, is about transcending the confines of routine awareness. It’s an odyssey that allows us to venture into the depths of our own minds, exploring the realms of creativity, insight, and connection to a larger universe.

Expanding consciousness isn’t limited to chemical alterations; it’s a holistic experience that encompasses philosophical, spiritual, and psychological growth. It encourages us to explore the boundaries of our perception and embrace the mysteries that lie beyond.

**Ethical Philosophy: Navigating the Inner Landscape Responsibly**

As we tread the path of cognitive exploration and expanding consciousness, ethical considerations become paramount. Ethical philosophy guides us in discerning our responsibilities as explorers of the mind. How do we navigate our inner landscape with respect for ourselves and others? How do we approach personal growth without infringing upon the rights and well-being of those around us?

Ethical exploration involves balancing our innate curiosity with a profound respect for the boundaries and well-being of others. It’s about fostering a compassionate and informed approach that ensures our quest for enlightenment contributes positively to our own lives and the greater community.

**Final Thoughts: Embracing the Journey**

Cognitive liberty and expanding consciousness are two facets of the intricate tapestry that makes us human. By recognizing our right to explore our own minds and pursuing the expansion of our awareness in ethical and responsible ways, we embark on a transformative journey of self-discovery, connection, and personal growth. This journey isn’t limited to any one method; it’s a vast landscape of potential waiting to be explored, understood, and cherished.

As we venture forward, let us remember that cognitive liberty and expanded consciousness are not merely abstract concepts, but living, breathing philosophies that encourage us to embrace the boundless potential of the human mind.

Explore. Question. Evolve.

**Title: Exploring Cognitive Liberty and Expanding Human Consciousness**

In a world where the realms of thought, consciousness, and personal freedom converge, the concept of cognitive liberty takes center stage. This dynamic principle is not only about the freedom of choice; it’s about the sovereignty of the mind itself. Delving into the realm of consciousness exploration, ethical philosophy, and the mind-body connection can empower individuals to expand their human experience without being tethered to external constraints. In this blog post, we’ll journey through the corridors of cognitive liberty and consciousness expansion, uncovering the potential for personal growth, intellectual exploration, and the pursuit of higher states of awareness.

**Cognitive Liberty: Nurturing the Garden of Thought:**
Cognitive liberty goes beyond the conventional understanding of personal freedom. It’s the notion that our thoughts, beliefs, and experiences belong solely to us, and no external entity has the authority to dictate or regulate them. This principle, closely intertwined with ethical philosophy, urges us to safeguard our cognitive realm from undue interference. In a world where information and ideas flow ceaselessly, cognitive liberty offers the foundation for critical thinking, self-expression, and open dialogue.

**Consciousness Exploration: Beyond the Horizon of Awareness:**
At the heart of cognitive liberty lies the opportunity for consciousness exploration. This journey involves venturing into the depths of our own minds, seeking to understand the intricacies of our thoughts and the expanses of our awareness. Through practices like mindfulness, meditation, and contemplation, we can unlock new perspectives and discover hidden facets of our consciousness. This form of personal growth allows us to break free from the limitations of routine thinking and explore the vast landscape of our inner worlds.

**Mind-Body Connection: Bridging the Gap:**
The intricate relationship between our mind and body shapes our perceptions, experiences, and responses to the world around us. Understanding this connection provides a gateway to cognitive enhancement and expanded consciousness. By nurturing both mental and physical well-being, we create an environment where cognitive liberty flourishes. Practices such as yoga, breathwork, and holistic health approaches contribute to harmonizing the mind-body connection, enabling us to access new dimensions of awareness.

**Expanding Human Consciousness: The Uncharted Horizons:**
As we embrace cognitive liberty and delve into consciousness exploration, we embark on a journey to expand human consciousness. This is not a mere intellectual exercise; it’s a transformational endeavor that awakens us to the potential of heightened states of awareness. By integrating philosophy, science, and personal experience, we can transcend the boundaries of ordinary consciousness and glimpse the extraordinary. It’s an evolution that empowers us to embrace the full spectrum of human potential.

Cognitive liberty stands as a beacon of intellectual autonomy, inviting us to explore the intricacies of consciousness and embrace our capacity for growth and expansion. By nurturing the mind-body connection and delving into ethical philosophy, we pave the way for greater cognitive awareness. As we journey through the landscapes of thought, we redefine personal freedom, creating a tapestry of consciousness that is uniquely our own. In the pursuit of cognitive liberty, we unlock the doors to uncharted realms of human consciousness, and in doing so, we find liberation in the vast expanses of our own minds.

Title: **”Unlocking the Mind: Navigating Cognitive Liberty and Expanding Consciousness”**

In a world where our understanding of consciousness and the human mind is constantly evolving, the concept of cognitive liberty has gained significance as a gateway to exploring the depths of our inner experiences. Delving into altered states of consciousness and personal growth, the pursuit of cognitive liberty has taken on ethical and philosophical dimensions that extend far beyond the realm of substances. In this blog post, we’ll journey through the realms of cognitive liberty, consciousness exploration, and the ethical considerations that guide our pursuit of mind freedom.

**Cognitive Liberty: Beyond Boundaries**

Cognitive liberty, often referred to as the right to control one’s own mental processes and experiences, is a fundamental concept that opens doors to personal growth and self-discovery. At its core, cognitive liberty acknowledges that each individual should have the autonomy to explore the reaches of their consciousness without undue constraints. This exploration goes beyond traditional understandings of freedom; it’s an exploration of our inner worlds and the realization that our minds are landscapes ripe for discovery.

**The Odyssey of Consciousness Exploration**

Consciousness exploration, a key facet of cognitive liberty, invites us to embark on an odyssey within ourselves. Through practices such as meditation, mindfulness, and introspection, we can unlock altered states of consciousness that illuminate new perspectives on reality. This journey doesn’t rely on external substances; rather, it’s a mindful navigation of our thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. It’s a quest to better understand the intricate web of our consciousness and the infinite potential it holds.

**Ethical Philosophy: Guiding Our Path**

As we tread the path of cognitive liberty, ethical philosophy serves as our compass. We’re confronted with questions that challenge us to consider the implications of our actions on both ourselves and society. How do we responsibly wield our freedom to explore our minds? How do we ensure that our pursuits don’t infringe upon the well-being of others? Ethical considerations shape our approach to cognitive liberty, emphasizing respect for ourselves, others, and the interconnectedness of our experiences.

**Expanding Horizons, Expanding Humanity**

Expanding human consciousness is a journey of expanding our horizons and, in turn, expanding our humanity. By embracing cognitive liberty and consciously exploring our inner landscapes, we contribute to the ever-evolving tapestry of human understanding. Our discoveries become threads woven into the fabric of shared knowledge, fostering empathy, connection, and a deeper appreciation for the diversity of human experience.

**Cognitive Rights for the Future**

In the pursuit of cognitive liberty, we’re paving the way for cognitive rights to be recognized and protected. Just as we cherish freedom of speech and expression, cognitive rights could emerge as a cornerstone of our evolving societal framework. By championing cognitive liberty, we’re advocating for the importance of personal growth, self-awareness, and the exploration of consciousness as integral components of the human experience.

In conclusion, cognitive liberty transcends conventional boundaries and offers us a profound invitation to explore the limitless dimensions of our minds. As we embark on this journey of consciousness exploration, guided by ethical considerations, we contribute to the ongoing evolution of human understanding and interconnectedness. Let us embrace cognitive liberty as a catalyst for personal growth, connection, and the expansion of our shared humanity.

**Title: Exploring Cognitive Liberty: Navigating the Frontiers of Human Consciousness**

In a rapidly evolving world, the exploration of cognitive liberty and the depths of human consciousness has taken center stage. As we journey towards greater self-awareness and understanding, a multitude of fascinating concepts come into play. Let’s delve into the captivating realm of cognitive liberty without focusing on drug-related aspects, and discover how it influences personal growth, ethical philosophy, and the expansion of our cognitive horizons.

**Consciousness Exploration for Personal Growth**

Consciousness, that enigmatic phenomenon that defines our awareness, offers a vast landscape for exploration. In the pursuit of personal growth, understanding the various dimensions of consciousness becomes a transformative endeavor. Exploring altered states of consciousness, not limited to substances, can lead to insights about the mind’s capabilities and the limitless potential for self-improvement.

**Cognitive Enhancement and the Mind-Body Connection**

Cognitive enhancement is an exciting avenue of study that transcends the boundaries of conventional thought. It encompasses practices that harness the mind’s innate abilities to optimize cognitive functions. The mind-body connection, a cornerstone of cognitive liberty, allows us to explore techniques such as meditation, mindfulness, and cognitive exercises to unlock new levels of mental clarity and focus.

**Ethical Philosophy and Cognitive Rights**

As cognitive liberty paves the way for uncharted territories, questions of ethics and personal freedom emerge. Ethical philosophy enters the discussion as we contemplate the boundaries of our cognitive experiences. The concept of cognitive rights gains prominence, advocating for individuals’ autonomy over their consciousness and mental states, irrespective of their chosen path of exploration.

**The Neuroethical Implications of Expanding Consciousness**

Neuroethics, a field at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, plays a crucial role in the pursuit of cognitive liberty. It grapples with the implications of altering consciousness and advocates for responsible exploration. The discourse surrounding neuroethics challenges us to consider the potential impacts of our actions on both our individual well-being and society at large.

**Embracing Cognitive Liberty: A Journey of Discovery**

In conclusion, cognitive liberty offers a multidimensional journey that extends far beyond its perceived associations with substance-related exploration. It encompasses personal growth, ethical considerations, and the intersection of mind and body. By embracing the diversity of cognitive experiences available to us, we embark on a profound journey of self-discovery and a deeper understanding of the complexities of human consciousness.

As we navigate the uncharted waters of cognitive liberty, we’re invited to challenge existing paradigms, explore the unexplored, and champion our right to explore the full spectrum of human consciousness in an ethical and mindful manner.

Keywords: Cognitive liberty, Consciousness exploration, Mind freedom, Psychedelic research, Altered states of consciousness, Personal growth and consciousness, Cognitive enhancement, Ethical philosophy, Drug policy reform, Mental sovereignty, Psychedelic therapy, Mind-body connection, Neuroethics, Expanding human consciousness, Cognitive rights

Neonatal tetanus campaign in Kenya (induced infertility)

Further References

Oller, J. W., Shaw, C. A., Tomljenovic, L., Karanja, S. K., Ngare, W., Clement, F. M., & Pillette, J. R.. (2017). HCG Found in WHO Tetanus Vaccine in Kenya Raises Concern in the Developing World. OALib

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103937
directSciHub download

Ibinda, F., Bauni, E., Kariuki, S. M., Fegan, G., Lewa, J., Mwikamba, M., … Newton, C. R. J. C.. (2015). Incidence and risk factors for Neonatal Tetanus in admissions to Kilifi County hospital, Kenya. PLoS ONE

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122606
directSciHub download

Melgaard, B., Mutie, D. M., & Kimani, G.. (1988). A cluster survey of mortality due to neonatal tetanus in Kenya. International Journal of Epidemiology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/ije/17.1.174
directSciHub download

Maitha, E., Baya, C., & Bauni, E.. (2013). He burden and challenges of neonatal tetanus in Kilifi district, Kenya-2004-7. East African Medical Journal
Organización Mundial de la Salud, & Salud, O. M. de la. (2006). Tetanus vaccine; WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemilogical Report


Talwar, G. P., Gupta, J. C., Rulli, S. B., Sharma, R. S., Nand, K. N., Bandivdekar, A. H., … Singh, P.. (2015). Advances in development of a contraceptive vaccine against human chorionic gonadotropin. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1517/14712598.2015.1049943
directSciHub download

Gupta, S. K., Shrestha, A., & Minhas, V.. (2014). Milestones in contraceptive vaccines development and hurdles in their application. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4161/hv.27202
directSciHub download

Stevens, V. C.. (1996). Progress in the development of human chorionic gonadotropin antifertility vaccines. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.1996.tb00024.x
directSciHub download

Gupta, S. K., & Bansal, P.. (2010). Vaccines for immunological control of fertility. Reproductive Medicine and Biology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s12522-009-0042-9
directSciHub download

Talwar, G. P., Singh, O. M., Pal, R., Chatterjee, N., Sahai, P., Dhall, K., … Saxena, B. N.. (1994). A vaccine that prevents pregnancy in women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1073/pnas.91.18.8532
directSciHub download

Talwar, G. P., Gupta, J. C., Purswani, S., Vyas, H. K., Nand, K. N., Pal, P., & Ella, K. M.. (2021). A unique vaccine for birth control and treatment of advanced stage cancers secreting ectopically human chorionic gonadotropin. Exploration of Immunology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.37349/ei.2021.00026
directSciHub download

Dr. Charles Morgan on Psycho-Neurobiology and War

Dr. Charles Morgan speaks to cadets and faculty at West Point about a range of topics, including psychology, neurobiology, and the science of humans at war. Dr. Morgan’s neurobiological and forensic research has established him as an international expert in post-traumatic stress disorder, eyewitness memory, and human performance under conditions of high stress.

The event was organized and hosted by the Modern War Institute at West Point.

IgG4 Antibodies Induced by Repeated Vaccination May Generate Immune Tolerance to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

Less than a year after the global emergence of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a novel vaccine platform based on mRNA technology was introduced to the market. Globally, around 13.38 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses of diverse platforms have been administered. To date, 72.3% of the total population has been injected at least once with a COVID-19 vaccine. As the immunity provided by these vaccines rapidly wanes, their ability to prevent hospitalization and severe disease in individuals with comorbidities has recently been questioned, and increasing evidence has shown that, as with many other vaccines, they do not produce sterilizing immunity, allowing people to suffer frequent re-infections. Additionally, recent investigations have found abnormally high levels of IgG4 in people who were administered two or more injections of the mRNA vaccines. HIV, Malaria, and Pertussis vaccines have also been reported to induce higher-than-normal IgG4 synthesis. Overall, there are three critical factors determining the class switch to IgG4 antibodies: excessive antigen concentration, repeated vaccination, and the type of vaccine used. It has been suggested that an increase in IgG4 levels could have a protecting role by preventing immune over-activation, similar to that occurring during successful allergen-specific immunotherapy by inhibiting IgE-induced effects. However, emerging evidence suggests that the reported increase in IgG4 levels detected after repeated vaccination with the mRNA vaccines may not be a protective mechanism; rather, it constitutes an immune tolerance mechanism to the spike protein that could promote unopposed SARS-CoV2 infection and replication by suppressing natural antiviral responses. Increased IgG4 synthesis due to repeated mRNA vaccination with high antigen concentrations may also cause autoimmune diseases, and promote cancer growth and autoimmune myocarditis in susceptible individuals.
URL: www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/11/5/991

Edible plants as oral “vaccines”


Plants are promising candidates as bioreactors for the production of oral recombinant proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry. As an initial step toward provision of an oral vaccine against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we have expressed a partial spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV in the cytosol of nuclear-transformed plants and in the chloroplasts of plastid-transformed plants. In the construction of both nuclear and plastid transformation vectors, a 2-kilobase nucleotide sequence encoding amino acids 1-658 of the SARS-CoV spike protein (S1) was modified with nucleotide changes, but not amino acid changes, to optimize codon usage for expression in plants. To investigate the subcellular localization of S1 during transient expression in tobacco leaves, a translational fusion consisting of S1 and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated. Following agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves, analysis by laser confocal scanning microscopy revealed that the S1:GFP fusion protein was localized to the cytosol. In stable transgenic tobacco plants and lettuce plants generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, tobacco and lettuce leaves were observed to express the S1 at high levels from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter with Northern blot analysis. When the S1 was expressed in transplastomic tobacco, S1 messenger RNA and its corresponding protein were detected on Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of producing S1 in nuclear- and chloroplast-transformed plants, indicating its potential in subsequent development of a plant-derived and safe oral recombinant subunit vaccine against the SARS-CoV in edible plants.

Li, H.-Y., Ramalingam, S., & Chye, M.-L.. (2006). Accumulation of Recombinant SARS-CoV Spike Protein in Plant Cytosol and Chloroplasts Indicate Potential for Development of Plant-Derived Oral Vaccines. Experimental Biology and Medicine

, 231(8), 1346–1352.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/153537020623100808
directSciHub download

Pogrebnyak, N., Golovkin, M., Andrianov, V., Spitsin, S., Smirnov, Y., Egolf, R., & Koprowski, H.. (2005). Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S protein production in plants: Development of recombinant vaccine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

, 102(25), 9062–9067.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0503760102
directSciHub download

Li, H.-Y., & Chye, M.-L.. (2009). Use of GFP to Investigate Expression of Plant-Derived Vaccines. In Methods in Molecular Biology

(pp. 275–285)
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-559-6_19
directSciHub download

Fifth-generation warfare (5GW)

Fifth-generation warfare (5GW) is warfare that is conducted primarily through non-kinetic military action, such as social engineering, misinformation, cyberattacks, along with emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence and fully autonomous systems. Fifth generation warfare has been described by Daniel Abbot as a war of “information and perception”. There is no widely agreed upon definition of fifth-generation warfare, and it has been rejected by some scholars, including William S. Lind, who was one of the original theorists of fourth-generation warfare.


The term ‘fifth-generation warfare’ was first used in 2003 by Robert Steele. The following year, Lind criticised the concept, arguing that the fourth generation had yet to fully materialize.

In 2008, the term was used by Terry Terriff, who presented the 2003 ricin letters as a potential example, but stated that he was not entirely sure if it was a fifth-generation attack, claiming “we may not recognize it as it resolves around us. Or we might look at several alternative futures and see each as fifth generation.” Terriff argued that while fifth-generation warfare allows “super-empowered individuals” to make political statements through terrorism, they lack the political power to actually have their demands met.


Alex P. Schmid said that fifth-generation warfare is typified by its “omnipresent battlefield”, and the fact that people engaged in it do not necessarily use military force, instead employing a mixture of kinetic and non-kinetic force. In the 1999 book Unrestricted Warfare, by colonels Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui of the People’s Liberation Army, they noted that in the years since the 1991 Gulf War, conventional military violence had decreased, which correlated to an increase in “political, economic, and technological violence”, which they argued could be more devastating than a conventional war.[8] On the contrary, Thomas P. M. Barnett believes that the effectiveness of fifth-generational warfare is exaggerated, as terrorism conducted by individuals, such as Timothy McVeigh or Ted Kaczynski, lacks the support of more organized movements. This was seconded by George Michael, who noted that in the United States, gang violence was responsible for far more deaths than lone wolf terrorist attacks.

L.C. Rees described the nature of fifth generation warfare as difficult to define in itself, alluding to the third law of science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke – “any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifth-generation_warfare

Further References

Nadeem, M., Mustafa, G., & Kakar, A.. (2021). Fifth Generation Warfare and its Challenges to Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs
Krishnan, A.. (2022). Fifth Generation Warfare, Hybrid Warfare, and Gray Zone Conflict: A Comparison. Journal of Strategic Security

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5038/1944-0472.15.4.2013
directSciHub download

QURESHI, W. A.. (2019). Fourth- and Fifth-Generation Warfare: Technology and Perceptions.. San Diego International Law Journal
Rehman, M. A.. (2022). Media and Fifth-generation Warfare: A Case Study of Indian Disinformation Campaign Against Balochistan. Journal of Mass Communication Department, Dept of …
Patel, A.. (2019). Fifth-Generation Warfare and the Definitions of Peace. The Journal of Intelligence, Conflict, and Warfare

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21810/jicw.v2i2.1061
directSciHub download

Jahangir, J., & Bashir, N.. (2022). Fifth Generation and Hybrid Warfare: Response Strategy of Pakistan. Academic Journal of Social Sciences (AJSS )

Plain numerical DOI: 10.54692/ajss.2022.06021753
directSciHub download

Shabbir, T., Farooqui, Y., Waheed, S., … S. U.-I., & 2020, undefined. (2020). ’Open Data’Technology and Fifth Generation Warfare (A Pakistan Perspective). Researchgate.Net
Layton, P.. (2017). Fifth Generation Air Warfare Working Paper 43. Royal Australian Air Force Air Power Development Centre
Layton, P.. (2018). Fifth-Generation Air Warfare. Australian Defence Force Journal
Tahir, I. A., & Afridi, M. K.. (2019). Fifth Generations Warfare (5GW)-The New Dimensions of Enemies Launched Warfare and Security Concern of Pakistan. Global Regional Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.31703/grr.2019(iv-i).27
directSciHub download

Barnett, D. K.. (2010). The Fallacies of Fourth and Fifth Generation Warfare. Small Wars Journal
Layton Peter. (2018). Fifth-Generation Air Warfare. Australian Defence Force Journal
Vancouver, C.. (2018). Contemporary Conflict & The Fifth Generation of Warfare. The Journal of Intelligence, Conflict, and Warfare

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21810/jicw.v1i1.466
directSciHub download

Turunen, A.. (2018). Alternative media ecosystem as a fifth-generation warfare supra-combination. In Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-75307-2_7
directSciHub download

Yun, M., & Kim, E.. (2022). Cyber Cognitive Warfare as an Emerging New War Domain and Its Strategies and Tactics. Korean Journal of Defense Analysis

Plain numerical DOI: 10.22883/kjda.2022.34.4.005
directSciHub download

Hammes, T. X.. (2007). Fourth Generation Warfare Evolves, Fifth Emerges. Military Review
CASIS. (2019). A Brief History of Social Movements in North America. The Journal of Intelligence, Conflict, and Warfare

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21810/jicw.v2i1.958
directSciHub download

Kelshall, C. M.. (2022). Fifth Generation Warfare? Violent Transnational Social Movements as Security Disruptors

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-06636-8_13
directSciHub download

Liles, S.. (2007). Cyber warfare compared to fourth and fifth generation warfare as applied to the Internet. In International Symposium on Technology and Society, Proceedings

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/ISTAS.2007.4362225
directSciHub download

Lee, S.-J., & Park, M.-H.. (2017). Fifth Generation Warfare (5GW) – Concept and Its Implication to Korea”s National Security –. Korean Journal of Military Affairs

Plain numerical DOI: 10.33528/kjma.2017.12.2.1
directSciHub download

Flipping a switch inside the head: Radio-operated remote control of neuronal activity

Source: Rockefeller University
URL: seek.rockefeller.edu/flipping-a-switch-inside-the-head/
Cf.: patents.google.com/patent/US10786570B2/en

Genetically engineered cells, nanoparticles and RF magnetic fields
Source: patents.google.com/patent/US10786570B2/en
In an embodiment of the invention, the cells to be targeted may be genetically engineered to express one or more genes encoding physiologically active proteins of interest, such as those proteins providing a therapeutic benefit. The cells are genetically engineered in such a way that expression of the protein(s) of interest is induced in the cell upon excitation of the nanoparticles which results in a localized temperature increase or an increase in nanoparticle motion. Alternatively, the cells to be targeted may be engineered to express a non-encoding nucleic acid molecule of interest such as an antisense or siRNA molecule. Additionally, the target cells maybe genetically engineered to express a temperature sensitive protein, such as a temperature sensitive ion channel, wherein an increase in temperature mediated by the excited nanoparticles results in a cellular response through activation of the ion channel.
In another embodiment of the invention, target cells may be engineered to intracellularly express a protein that is capable of acting as an activated nanoparticle upon exposure to a RF magnetic field. Such proteins include for example, the iron storage protein ferritin. Such proteins may be expressed in the cell as fusion proteins to target their location to a specific site within the cell, for example, in close proximity to a temperature sensitive channel.

With new technology, scientists are able to exert wireless control over brain cells of mice with just the push of a button. The first thing they did was make the mice hungry.
Friedman and his colleagues have demonstrated a radio-operated remote control for the appetite and glucose metabolism of mice—a sophisticated technique to wirelessly alter neurons in the animals’ brains. At the flick of a switch, they are able to make mice hungry—or suppress their appetite—while the mice go about their lives normally. It’s a tool they are using to unravel the neurological basis of eating, and it is likely to have applications for studies of other hard-wired behaviors.

Friedman, Marilyn M. Simpson Professor, has been working on the technique for several years with Sarah Stanley, a former postdoc in his lab who now is assistant professor at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and collaborators at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Aware of the limitations of existing methods for triggering brain cells in living animals, the group set out to invent a new way. An ideal approach, they reasoned, would be as noninvasive and non-damaging as possible. And it should work quickly and repeatedly.

Although there are other ways to deliver signals to neurons, each has its limitations. In deep-brain stimulation, for example, scientists thread a wire through the brain to place an electrode next to the target cells. But the implant can damage nearby cells and tissues in ways that interfere with normal behavior. Optogenetics, which works similarly but uses fiber optics and a pulse of light rather than electricity, has the same issue. A third strategy—using drugs to activate genetically modified cells bred into mice—is less invasive, but drugs are slow to take effect and wear off.

The solution that Friedman’s group hit upon, referred to as radiogenetics or magnetogenetics, avoids these problems. With their method, published last year in Nature, biologists can turn neurons on or off in a live animal at will—quickly, repeatedly, and without implants—by engineering the cells to make them receptive to radio waves or a magnetic field.

“In effect, we created a perceptual illusion that the animal had a drop in blood sugar.”

“We’ve combined molecules already used in cells for other purposes in a manner that allows an invisible force to take control of an instinct as primal as hunger,” Friedman says.

The method links five very different biological tools, which can look whimsically convoluted, like a Rube Goldberg contraption on a molecular scale. It relies on a green fluorescent protein borrowed from jellyfish, a peculiar antibody derived from camels, squishy bags of iron particles, and the cellular equivalent of a door made from a membrane-piercing protein—all delivered and installed by a genetically engineered virus. The remote control for this contraption is a modified welding tool (though a store-bought magnet also works).

The researchers’ first challenge was to find something in a neuron that could serve as an antenna to detect the incoming radio signal or magnetic field. The logical choice was ferritin, a protein that stores iron in cells in balloon-like particles just a dozen nanometers wide. Iron is essential to cells but can also be toxic, so it is sequestered in ferritin particles until it is needed. Each ferritin particle carries within it thousands of grains of iron that wiggle around in response to a radio signal, and shift and align when immersed in a magnetic field. We all have these particles shimmying around inside our brain cells, but the motions normally have no effect on neurons.
Friedman’s team realized that they could use a genetically engineered virus to create doorways into a neuron’s outer membrane. If they could then somehow attach each door to a ferritin particle, they reasoned, they might be able to wiggle the ferritin enough to jostle the door open. “The ‘door’ we chose is called TRPV1,” says Stanley. “Once TRPV1 is activated, calcium and sodium ions would next flow into the cell and trigger the neuron to fire.” The bits borrowed from camels and jellyfish provided what the scientists needed to connect the door to the ferritin (see How to outfit a brain sidebar, right).

Once the team had the new control mechanism working, they put it to the test. For Friedman and Stanley, whose goal is to unravel the biological causes of overeating and obesity, the first application was obvious: Try to identify specific neurons involved in appetite. The group modified glucose-sensing neurons—cells that are believed to monitor blood sugar levels in the brain and keep them within normal range—to put them under wireless control. To accomplish this, they inserted the TRPV1 and ferritin genes into a virus and—using yet another genetic trick—injected them into the glucose-sensing neurons. They could then fiddle with the cells to see whether they are involved, as suspected, in coordinating feeding and the release of hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, that keep blood glucose levels in check.

How to outfit a brain for radio control

Once the virus had enough time to infect and transform the target neurons, the researchers switched on a radio transmitter tuned to 465 kHz, a little below the band used for AM radio.

The neurons responded. They began to fire, signaling a shortage of glucose even though the animal’s blood sugar levels were normal. And other parts of the body responded just as they would to a real drop in blood sugar: insulin levels fell, the liver started pumping out more glucose, and the animals started eating more. “In effect,” Friedman says, “we created a perceptual illusion that the animal had low blood glucose even though the levels were normal.”

Inspired by these results, the researchers wondered if magnetism, like radio waves, might trigger ferritin to open the cellular doors. It did: When the team put the mice cages close to an MRI machine, or waved a rare-earth magnet over the animals, their glucose-sensing neurons were triggered.

Stimulating appetite is one thing. Could they also suppress it? The group tweaked the TRPV1 gene so it would pass chloride, which acts to inhibit neurons. Now when they inserted the modified TRPV1 into the neurons, the rush of chloride made the neurons behave as if the blood was overloaded with glucose. Insulin production surged in the animals, and they ate less. “This seems to indicate clearly that the brain as well as the pancreas is involved in glucose regulation,” Friedman says.

Friedman and Stanley hope that biologists will be able to use the remote-control system to tackle a range of neural processes other than appetite. And beyond being a basic research tool, the method could potentially lead to novel therapies for brain disorders.


Graphene biointerfaces for optical stimulation of cells

Researchers have developed a technique that allows them to speed up or slow down human heart cells growing in a dish on command – simply by shining a light on them and varying its intensity. The cells are grown on a material called graphene, which converts light into electricity.

See video (University of California): www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/927967

Savchenko, A., Cherkas, V., Liu, C., Braun, G. B., Kleschevnikov, A., Miller, Y. I., & Molokanova, E.. (2018). Graphene biointerfaces for optical stimulation of cells. Science Advances

, 4(5)
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0351
directSciHub download

Matt, A., Liang, H., Fishman, M., Gracheva, E., Wang, F., Zhang, X., … Zhou, C.. (2023). Graphene-enabled optical cardiac control in Drosophila melanogaster. In J. A. Izatt & J. G. Fujimoto (Eds.), Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXVII

(p. 81). SPIE
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1117/12.2652964
directSciHub download