Operation Mind Control (Bowart, 1978)

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Audiobook: open.spotify.com/show/18iTbULC7tuii1Y3qf9LOr
Interview with James Martinez: vimeo.com/7952557

BiBTeX
@book{book:{91532088},
title = {Operation Mind Control},
author = {Walter Bowart},
isbn = {0440167558; 9780440167556},
year = {1978},
url = {libgen.li/file.php?md5=5b759b56e154df6303bb47b051dfb3db}}


This text is an excerpt from a chapter of Bärtås and Ekman’s collection of essays Orienterarsjukan och andra berättelser.

URL: biblioteket.stockholm.se/titel/516229

The letter from Professor Delgado carries two insignias. One is made of Hebrew letters on what looks like a Torah scroll. Under the scroll it says “lux et veritas”—light and truth. The other insignia reads “Investigacion Ramon y Cajal.” In our letter to him, we have explained that we are two artists who have been studying his “astonishing research,” and that we are interested in his views on the relationship between humans and machines. José M.R. Delgado has written that he will be most happy to receive us at his home in Madrid.

Delgado’s name is a constant on various conspiracy websites dedicated to the topic of mind control; those with names like The Government Psychiatric Torture Site, Mind Control Forum, and Parascope. The Internet has in fact become the medium of conspiracy theorists. The network functions as an endless library where the very web structure lends itself to a conspiratorial frame of mind. The idea that every phenomenon and person can be connected to another phenomenon and person is the seed of the conspiracy theorist’s claim to “make the connections between things,” track the flow of power, and show how everything hangs together within some larger murky context.

Before traveling to Madrid, we get a hold of Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, the 1969 Delgado book most often cited on the Net. The book has has been gathering dust for 30 years at the university’s psychology library: it has never been cracked open. It is a disturbing book, less because of its photographs of animal experiments than because of the triumphal tone of the writing. Delgado discusses how we have managed to tame and civilize our surrounding nature. Now it is time to civilize our inner being. The scientist sees himself on the verge of a new era where humans will undergo “psycho-civilization” by linking their brains directly to machines.

“Ramon y Cajal”—the name on one of the two insignia—is referred to in Delgado’s book. Cajal was a famous histologist who became the young Delgado’s mentor and inspiration. In his acknowledgements, Delgado cites Cajal’s telling claim that “knowledge of the physicochemical basis of memory, feelings, and reason would make man the true master of creation, that his most transcendental accomplishment would be the conquering of his own brain.”1

Professor Delgado is now 85 and lives in a suburb of Madrid. Madrid is also the home of an anonymous group of people who call themselves Nosman, and are dedicated to gathering information about Delgado and his career. We e-mail Nosman and receive some awkwardly written responses that oscillate between warnings about the Spanish security agencies and suspicious questions about us and our interest in Delgado. For some reason, they refuse to meet with us but give us Delgado’s email address anyway. Delgado, on the other hand, responds immediately when we get to Madrid. He is very eager to invite us to lunch.

It was at Madrid University that Delgado began his research on pain and pleasure as the means of behavior control. After World War II, he became the head of the Department of neuropsychiatry at Yale’s medical school. In 1966, he became a professor in physiology. By that time, he had further developed the research of the Swiss physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Walter Rudolph Hess who had used electric stimulation to chart how different parts of the brain control different motor functions.

After a series of spectacular experiments on animals in Bermuda, Delgado wrote: “If you insert electrodes directly into the brains of cats and apes, they will behave like electronic toys. A whole series of motor functions can be triggered based on which button the experimenter pushes. This applies to all body parts: front and back paws, the tail, the hind parts, the head, and the ears.”

Using electrostimulation in a group of gibbon apes, Delgado succeeded in dismantling the usual power structure within the group. He gave a female ape with a low ranking a control box connected to electrodes that were implanted in the group’s alpha male, and the female learned to use the box to turn the alpha male on and off at will.

The electrodes were inserted into the ape’s brain and connected to an instrument that Delgado called the stimoceiver. The stimoceiver was an ideal instrument for two-way communication. Researchers could affect and at the same time register activity in the brain. From earlier prototypes where the lab animals were connected with wires, a remote control model was later developed that could send and receive signals over FM waves. The device was developed from the telemetric equipment used to send signals to and from astronauts in space. “We have already established radio contact with space; it is now time to establish contact with the human brain,”—a recurring refrain in Delgado’s articles.

The taxi lets us out in an upscale suburb of Madrid where a light rain is falling on the brick houses. A church service has just finished and people in Burberry clothes are streaming out of a strange concrete church. At the entrance of the apartment building where Delgado lives, we are met by a fashionable and exuberant American woman of indeterminable age. The woman, who is Delgado’s wife, talks nonstop in the elevator that opens directly into the apartment. The apartment is decorated in a fussy, bourgeois style. If it were not such a bleak day, the view would extend all the way to the Pardo Mountains. Delgado gives us a very cordial welcome. He is a proper old gentleman with sharp, intelligent eyes.

Delgado says that he has had a nightmare about our visit and woke up crying in the middle of the night. In the dream, we had showed up barefoot and in short sleeve shirts and had proceeded to gulp down all of his meringues. An hour later, we are seated at the marble table in his dining room and are served meringues and strawberry tarts after a large meal. We do not want to have more than one meringue each.

In a CNN special from 1985 called “Electro-magnetic Weapons and Mind Control,” the reporter claims that Delgado’s experiments were limited to animals. Nor is there anything in the texts on the various websites that indicates how far Delgado went in his research. His experiments on humans seem to have fallen into a strange collective amnesia. But anyone can walk into any well-stocked American medical library and take out Delgado’s own reports and articles on the subject. There we can find his own candid, open descriptions of how he moved on from experimenting on animals to humans. In an article called “Radio Control Behavior” in the February 1969 issue of The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Delgado, Dr. Mark, and several other colleagues describe what was the first clinical use of Intracerebral Radio Stimulation (IRS) on a human being. The stimoceiver itself only weighed 70 grams and was held fast by a bandage. One of the patients hid her stimoceiver with a wig because the experiments lasted days or weeks. The patients were scrutinized thoroughly. Everything they said was taped, their EEG was recorded, and they were photographed at regular intervals in order to document changes in their facial expressions.

In one of the article’s photographs, we see two of the subjects engaged in “spontaneous activity.” They are both girls with bandages over their heads. The girl in the background is holding something to her mouth, perhaps a harmonica. The other girl is bent over a guitar. Delgado’s colleague, Dr. Mark, is smiling at them. Mark had already achieved some notoriety at this time by claiming that all anti-social behavior is caused by brain damage. His recommendation had been the mass scanning of the American population in order to detect such damage in time and “correct” it.

Delgado and Mark’s article offers short descriptions of the patients who have had the device affixed to their brain. A black fourteen-year-old girl on the border of developmental disability who grew up in a foster home suddenly goes into a fury that leads to the death of her two stepsisters. A thirty-five-year old white industrial designer who ends up killing his wife and children flies into a rage when other motorists try to overtake him and he chases them and tries to run them off the road. Their aggressive behavior is supposed to be registered by the stimoceiver in the way a seismograph registers the earth’s tremors and the same stimoceiver is then to “turn them off” via the FM transmitter.

Delgado bombards us with a steady stream of anecdotes, scientific comments, and provocative rhetorical questions that are only interrupted by occasional tender comments directed to his wife. He tells of his work at the Ramon y Cajal Institute in the 1930s. In order to save a few paltry pennies, he would take a short cut through the zoo on his way to and from work. He would wander through the zoo alone at dawn and dusk and would hear lions and tigers roaring in this jungle in the city. After the War, he came to conquer nature in his own way in Bermuda. Even his wife was delighted to see the alpha male gibbon collapse when the underlings pushed the control lever. “Do you remember how we thought of Franco?” says his wife. “Imagine being able to turn off the Generalisimo.” Delgado responds “But who could have put the electrodes into the dictator? With electromagnetic radiation we could have controlled the dictator from a distance. We did some experiments at Yale where we influenced the brain from up to 30 meters away.”

One of the most important reasons why we wanted to meet Delgado is that we imagined him and his activities as belonging to a borderland between fiction and reality, between science and madness. People in psychotic states of mind often feel themselves controlled by foreign voices or spend their lives trying to prove that they have had a transmitter implanted inside their skulls that dictates their actions and thoughts all day and night. We ask Delgado what he thinks of the fact that his research provides a realistic edge to such fantasies.

He answers that he has on several occasions been contacted by strangers who say they want to have their implants removed and also that he has been sued by people he has never seen. Delgado is silent about the article that appeared in the Spanish monthly magazine Tiempo last year, where he was interviewed about exactly such accusations. The Tiempo reporter claimed that Delgado has ties with the Spanish secret police.

Delgado stretches out after the strawberry tarts. He has come to think of a case in Pittsburg in the 1950s where a robber was offered a milder sentence in exchange for being lobotomized. “I was operating electrodes into people’s brains at that time together with my good friend David Koskoff.” It was Koskoff who carried out the lobotomy on the robber. The patient was quiet for a while after the operation but then reverted to carrying out robberies again. In despair over his own unreliability, he decided to take his own life. He wrote a suicide note addressed to Dr. Koskoff: “Doctor, all your work has been in vain. I am an incompetent man and a criminal. I am taking my life but I am shooting myself in the heart and not the head. I donate my brain to you for research.”

Delgado’s wife puts her arm on his shoulder and says “And very little has happened since then, dear. There are still lots of bums running around.” The comment makes us both look away.

A moment later, we are sitting on the sofa. Delgado admits that not one useful application of the stimoceiver has come out of his research. “We knew too little about the brain. It is much too complicated to be controlled. We never knew which parts of the brain we were stimulating with the stimoceiver. We didn’t even manage to prevent epileptic attacks, which we thought would be the simplest of things. We never found the area where epilepsy attacks originate.” He says all of this without a trace of bitterness, as if in passing.

We are surprised by his casual attitude toward the stimoceiver, which in the 1960s and 70s was heralded as a great contribution to science. To demonstrate the power of their invention, Delgado and his colleagues orchestrated violent scenes in the lab. In her book, The Brain Changers: Scientists and the New Mind Control, Maya Pine describes a film where Dr. Mark attaches a stimoceiver to an electrode in a woman’s brain:

As the film opens, the patient, a rather attractive young woman, is seen playing the guitar and singing “Puff, the Magic Dragon.” A psychiatrist sits a few feet away. She seems undisturbed by the bandages that cover her head like a tight hood, from her forehead to the back of her neck. Then a mild electric current is sent from another room, stimulating one of the electrodes in her right amygdala. Immediately, she stops singing, the brainwave tracings from her amygdala begin to show spikes, a sign of seizure activity. She stares blankly ahead. Suddenly she grabs her guitar and smashes it against the wall, narrowly missing the psychiatrist’s head.2

The same incident was described in one of Delgado’s own articles. This experiment was repeated three days in a row.

If there were any problems with the experiments for Delgado, these were not ethical in nature but technical. How do you replicate the lab situation in society? How do you cut off the electricity to the stimoceiver? How do you avoid scarring and inflammation where the stimoceiver enters the brain? But the problems did not provoke any doubts about the supposed success of the stimoceiver. In the long run, the technique could be used to make people happy from a distance.

“When did you stop the stimoceiver experiments?” we ask him. To our surprise, he responds indignantly that he has yet to do so. “After Yale, I have continued my experiments here in Spain, both on animals and on humans.” Delgado’s pragmatism does another pirouette and we are beginning to have trouble following him.

Delgado pours coffee with his trembling hands. Spanish guitar music from the stereo fills the silence. We look together through the three recent collection of essays that Delgado has placed in front of us. Their publication dates range from 1979 up to this year. There is no emphasis on neurophysiology in any of them. Instead, they address questions of learning and upbringing from a more general psychological point of view.

Until the end of the 70s, Delgado and his colleagues were considered conquerors of an unknown territory, a wild and expansive jungle, the landscape of the brain and the soul. Apparently Delgado never got very far into the jungle, which proved to be much too thick and impenetrable. He has apparently retired without any regrets. He has instead started to cultivate his own garden. “My new book is going to be called The Education of My Grandchildren and Myself.”

We ask if it is possible to learn to interpret the electrical language of the brain and mention the Swedish science journalist Göran Frankel’s interview with Delgado back in 1977.3 In the interview Delgado claims that it is only a question of time before we connect the brain directly into computers that can communicate with the brain’s electrical language.

Delgado makes a dismissive gesture and looks at us as if we are numskulls. “It is impossible to decode the brain’s language. We can obviously manipulate different forms of electrical activity but what does that prove?” When we ask him about his colleague, Dr. Robert G. Heath, who claimed to be able to cure schizophrenic patients with electrostimulation, Delgado breaks into a patronizing smile and says, “Yes, yes, you’re supposed to have a box on your stomach with cables coming out of it that attach to electrodes in your brain and you stimulate yourself. It never worked.”

We lead him to a discussion of his own patients. Delgado interrupts us: “I have never done experiments on people.” For a moment, we wonder if we’ll have to take out one of his own scientific articles and hold it in front of him as evidence. We start to look for our file with hundreds of medical reports and articles. “You have to understand,” he says. “There are incredibly stringent rules around experimenting on humans. All the experiments I was involved in had a therapeutic goal. They were for the patients’ best.”

In one of the Yale reports in our file, there is a description of an experiment on an epileptic mental patient. The report states that the woman has been in asylums for a long time, she is worried about her daughter, and suffers from economic hardship. Electrodes measuring 12 centimeters have been stuck into her brain, 5 centimeters of them inside the brain tissue. She is interviewed while being given periodic electrical stimulation. The woman is tossed between various emotional states and finds that strange words are coming to her mind. She experiences pain and sexual desire. At the end of the interview, she becomes flirty and her language becomes coarse, only to be ashamed later and ask to be excused for words that she felt had come to her from outside. The woman has been transformed into a speaking doll that unwillingly gives voice to her brain’s every whim.

Delgado, who had previously been so flattered by two artists being interested in his work, now seems to be looking at us with new eyes. Who are we? And what do we want? His tone is short and sharp. The temperature in the apartment has dropped a few degrees.

In Physical Control of the Mind, Delgado proudly sums up how he has “used electrodes implanted for days or months to block thought, speech, and movement, or to trigger joy, laughter, friendliness, verbal activity, generosity, fear, hallucinations, and memory.” With this in mind, we ask him what therapeutic results came from these experiments. “As a whole, they didn’t result in any methods, except in the case of patients with chronic pain.”
Delgado in his apartment in Madrid. Video still courtesy of Magnus Bärtås.

He looks at the clock and says that we only have five minutes left. But we do not want to abandon our questions about the patients. What happened to them? How long were the implants in their brains? Delgado now becomes somewhat vague. He says that it was other researchers that left the implants in for a long time, not him or Dr. Heath, and he does not recall which patients it was. The electrodes were taken out of his own patients after a couple of days and did not cause any injuries. “We killed maybe a few hundred neurons when we inserted the electrodes. But the brain has millions of neurons.”

When Delgado spoke in the 60s of “the precise interface between brain and machine,” it gave rise to a number of far-fetched military visions. His research was also mainly funded by military institutions such as the Office of Naval Research and the Air Force AeroMedical Research Laboratory.

In the US, the CIA and government research in (and use of) different means of behavior control was made public in a series of congressional hearings in 1974 as well as in a Senate investigation three years later. Witnesses offered a glimpse of the CIA’s astonishing experiments in the so-called MK-Ultra program. The list of MK-Ultra experiments is like a group photo of the extended family of behavioral technologies: hypnosis, drugs, psychological testing, sleep research, brain research, electromagnetism, lie detection. The specific operations had very imaginative names: Sleeping Beauty, Project Pandora, Woodpecker, Artichoke, Operation Midnight Climax.

One of MK-Ultra’s fields of interest was electromagnetic fields and their effect on human beings. In 1962 it was discovered that the Russians had directed microwave radiation at the American embassy in Moscow with the hope of penetrating through to the ambassador’s office. The CIA immediately mounted an investigation under the codename Project Pandora. Concurrently with his research on the stimoceiver, Delgado had begun research on electro-magnetic radiation and its capacity for influencing people’s consciousness, and there is speculation that Delgado may have been involved in Project Pandora.

The CIA arranged for apes to be brought to the embassy. When the apes were examined after a period of being radiated, it was discovered that they had undergone changes in their chromosomes and blood. The personnel at the embassy was later reported to have increased white blood cell counts of up to 40 percent. The Boston Globe reported that the ambassador himself suffered not only from bloody eyes and chronic headaches but also from a blood disease resembling leukemia.

We take up Delgado’s research on electromagnetic fields and their effect on people. “I could later do with electro-magnetic radiation what I did with the stimoceiver. It’s much better because there’s no need for surgery,” he explains. “I could make apes go to sleep. But I stopped that line of research fifteen years ago. But I’m sure they’ve done a lot more research on this in both the US and Russia.”

We understand now that Delgado thinks the meeting ought to come to an end. We ask him about Project Pandora and he confirms the story of the Moscow Signal without any hesitation but he denies being involved in the operation.

In 1972, an article citing Delgado’s views was presented at Congress’s MK-Ultra hearings:

We need a program of psychosurgery for political control of our society. The purpose is physical control of the mind. Everyone who deviates from the given norm can be surgically manipulated. The individual may think that the most important reality is his own existence, but this is only his personal point of view. This lacks historical perspective Man does not have the right to develop his own mind. This kind of liberal orientation has great appeal. We must electrically control the brain. Some day armies and generals will be controlled by electric stimulation of the brain.4

When we confront him with this statement, he falls silent for a second. His crystal-clear memory of a moment ago suddenly evaporates. A fog sweeps in, the words become hard to get out. He does not recall ever being called to Congress. And he has no desire to acknowledge the kinds of statements we have just mentioned. For a second, Delgado becomes a very old and fragile man. But in the next moment, he is standing up straight again and has shaken off all these unpleasantries. Now he is in a hurry. He has to meet his sick sister-in-law. We try to secure a second meeting but he is evasive and talks about the vagaries of the weather and trips to his country house. Out the door in a cloud of cigar smoke, the taxi takes us back to Madrid.

Translated by Sina Najafi

This article was corrected on 29 November 2014. Since publishing this article in Cabinet no. 2 (Spring 2001), several errors have come to our attention. Together, these support Delgado’s claim that he never appeared before Congress or made the statement that the authors attributed to him. Delgado never testified before Congress during the MK-Ultra hearings, which in fact took place not in 1974 but in 1977. Neither is his name present in any of the transcripts of the hearings. Additionally, as far as we have been able to determine, the cited statement does not exist in this form in any of Delgado’s publications, though some of the phrases do occur in his book Physical Control of the Mind. The sole reference to Delgado in the Congressional Record that we have been able to locate appears in Dr. Peter Breggin’s “The Return of Lobotomy and Psychosurgery.” This article, which was critical of Delgado’s methods, was entered into the Congressional Record on 24 February 1972. We regret the errors.


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Neuromodulation techniques: A synoptic overview


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Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/adma.202103208
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Ramirez-Zamora, A., Giordano, J. J., Gunduz, A., Brown, P., Sanchez, J. C., Foote, K. D., … Okun, M. S.. (2018). Evolving applications, technological challenges and future opportunities in neuromodulation: Proceedings of the fifth annual deep brain stimulation think tank. Frontiers in Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00734
DOI URL
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Goudriaan, A. E., & Schluter, R. S.. (2019). Non-invasive Neuromodulation in Problem Gambling: What Are the Odds?. Current Addiction Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s40429-019-00266-y
DOI URL
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Elias, G. J. B., Boutet, A., Parmar, R., Wong, E. H. Y., Germann, J., Loh, A., … Bhat, V.. (2021). Neuromodulatory treatments for psychiatric disease: A comprehensive survey of the clinical trial landscape. Brain Stimulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2021.08.021
DOI URL
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Doshi, P. P., Russo, M., & Doshi, P. K.. (2021). Practice Trends of Neuromodulation Therapies for Pain and Spasticity in India. Neuromodulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/ner.13393
DOI URL
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Ward, M., Doran, J., Paskhover, B., & Mammis, A.. (2018). The 50 Most Cited Articles in Invasive Neuromodulation. World Neurosurgery

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.170
DOI URL
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Starling, A.. (2018). Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache. Current Opinion in Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000557
DOI URL
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Senova, S., Fomenko, A., Gondard, E., & Lozano, A. M.. (2020). Anatomy and function of the fornix in the context of its potential as a therapeutic target. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-322375
DOI URL
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Doesborg, P., & Haan, J.. (2018). Cluster headache: New targets and options for treatment. F1000Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.13380.1
DOI URL
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Gardner, J.. (2017). Securing a future for responsible neuromodulation in children: The importance of maintaining a broad clinical gaze. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.04.019
DOI URL
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Crockett, M. J., & Fehr, E.. (2014). Social brains on drugs: Tools for neuromodulation in social neuroscience. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/scan/nst113
DOI URL
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Edwards, C. A., Kouzani, A., Lee, K. H., & Ross, E. K.. (2017). Neurostimulation Devices for the Treatment of Neurologic Disorders. Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.05.005
DOI URL
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Rimmele, F., & Jürgens, T. P.. (2020). Neuromodulation in primary headaches: current evidence and integration into clinical practice. Current Opinion in Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000820
DOI URL
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La Rosa, V. L., Platania, A., Ciebiera, M., Garzon, S., Jȩdra, R., Ponta, M., & Buttice, S.. (2019). A comparison of sacral neuromodulation vs. transvaginal electrical stimulation for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder: The impact on quality of life, body image, sexual function, and emotional well-being. Przeglad Menopauzalny

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5114/pm.2019.86834
DOI URL
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Pericolini, M., Miget, G., Hentzen, C., Finazzi Agrò, E., Chesnel, C., Lagnau, P., … Amarenco, G.. (2021). Cortical, Spinal, Sacral, and Peripheral Neuromodulations as Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Review. Neuromodulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/ner.13525
DOI URL
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Pauwels, N., Willemse, C., Hellemans, S., Komen, N., Van den Broeck, S., Roenen, J., … De Schepper, H.. (2021). The role of neuromodulation in chronic functional constipation: A systematic review. Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica

Plain numerical DOI: 10.51821/84.3.012
DOI URL
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Azad, T. D., Veeravagu, A., & Steinberg, G. K.. (2016). Neurorestoration after stroke. Neurosurgical Focus

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3171/2016.2.FOCUS15637
DOI URL
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de Wall, L. L., & Heesakkers, J. P. F. A.. (2017). Effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. Research and Reports in Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2147/RRU.S124981
DOI URL
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Ramirez-Zamora, A., Giordano, J., Boyden, E. S., Gradinaru, V., Gunduz, A., Starr, P. A., … Okun, M. S.. (2019). Proceedings of the Sixth Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank Modulation of Brain Networks and Application of Advanced Neuroimaging, Neurophysiology, and Optogenetics. In Frontiers in Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00936
DOI URL
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Klooster, D. C. W., de Louw, A. J. A., Aldenkamp, A. P., Besseling, R. M. H., Mestrom, R. M. C., Carrette, S., … Boon, P.. (2016). Technical aspects of neurostimulation: Focus on equipment, electric field modeling, and stimulation protocols. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.02.016
DOI URL
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De Ridder, D., Manning, P., Cape, G., Vanneste, S., Langguth, B., & Glue, P.. (2016). Pathophysiology-Based Neuromodulation for Addictions: An Overview. In Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800213-1.00002-X
DOI URL
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Lo, P. A., Huang, K., Zhou, Q., Humayun, M. S., & Yue, L.. (2020). Ultrasonic retinal neuromodulation and acoustic retinal prosthesis. Micromachines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/mi11100929
DOI URL
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Krauss, J. K., Lipsman, N., Aziz, T., Boutet, A., Brown, P., Chang, J. W., … Lozano, A. M.. (2021). Technology of deep brain stimulation: current status and future directions. Nature Reviews Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41582-020-00426-z
DOI URL
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S., V., & D., D. R.. (2012). Noninvasive and invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of tinnitus: An overview. Neuromodulation
Kaczmarek, K. A.. (2017). The Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS) for neurorehabilitation. Scientia Iranica

Plain numerical DOI: 10.24200/sci.2017.4489
DOI URL
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Somani, A., & Kar, S. K.. (2019). Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression: The evidence thus far. General Psychiatry

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1136/gpsych-2019-100074
DOI URL
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Meng, Y., Hynynen, K., & Lipsman, N.. (2021). Applications of focused ultrasound in the brain: from thermoablation to drug delivery. Nature Reviews Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41582-020-00418-z
DOI URL
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Coman, A., Skårderud, F., Reas, D. L., & Hofmann, B. M.. (2014). The ethics of neuromodulation for anorexia nervosa: A focus on rTMS. Journal of Eating Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/2050-2974-2-10
DOI URL
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Herremans, S. C., & Baeken, C.. (2017). Clinical effects of non-invasive neuromodulation techniques in substance use disorder: An overview. Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Tyler, W. J.. (2011). Noninvasive neuromodulation with ultrasound? A continuum mechanics hypothesis. Neuroscientist

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1073858409348066
DOI URL
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Yamamoto, K., Elias, G. J. B., Beyn, M. E., Zemmar, A., Loh, A., Sarica, C., … Lozano, A. M.. (2021). Neuromodulation for Pain: A Comprehensive Survey and Systematic Review of Clinical Trials and Connectomic Analysis of Brain Targets. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1159/000517873
DOI URL
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Hennessey, D. B., Hoag, N., & Gani, J.. (2017). Impact of bladder dysfunction in the management of post radical prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence-a review. Translational Andrology and Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21037/tau.2017.04.14
DOI URL
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Urits, I., Schwartz, R., Smoots, D., Koop, L., Veeravelli, S., Orhurhu, V., … Viswanath, O.. (2020). Peripheral neuromodulation for the management of headache. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5812/aapm.110515
DOI URL
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Robbins, M. S., & Burch, R.. (2021). Preventive Migraine Treatment. CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000957
DOI URL
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Ahmed, A. I., & Lucas, J. D.. (2020). Spinal cord injury: pathophysiology and strategies for regeneration. Orthopaedics and Trauma

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.mporth.2020.06.003
DOI URL
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Argiolas, A., & Melis, M. R.. (1995). Neuromodulation of penile erection: an overview of the role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Progress in Neurobiology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/0301-0082(95)80003-Q
DOI URL
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Mohammad, S. S., Paget, S. P., & Dale, R. C.. (2019). Current therapies and therapeutic decision making for childhood-onset movement disorders. Movement Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/mds.27661
DOI URL
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Rajan, R., Skorvanek, M., Magocova, V., Siddiqui, J., Alsinaidi, O., Shinawi, H., … Bajwa, J.. (2020). Neuromodulation Options and Patient Selection for Parkinson’s Disease. In Neurology India

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.302473
DOI URL
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Dean, O. M., Gliddon, E., Van Rheenen, T. E., Giorlando, F., Davidson, S. K., Kaur, M., … Williams, L. J.. (2018). An update on adjunctive treatment options for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/bdi.12601
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Moisset, X., Lanteri-Minet, M., & Fontaine, D.. (2020). Neurostimulation methods in the treatment of chronic pain. Journal of Neural Transmission

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00702-019-02092-y
DOI URL
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Erőss, L., Entz, L., & Fabó, D.. (2015). Invasive neuromodulation in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsies. Orvosi Hetilap

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1556/650.2015.30319
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Ashina, M., Buse, D. C., Ashina, H., Pozo-Rosich, P., Peres, M. F. P., Lee, M. J., … Dodick, D. W.. (2021). Migraine: integrated approaches to clinical management and emerging treatments. The Lancet

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32342-4
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All, A. H., Zeng, X., Teh, D. B. L., Yi, Z., Prasad, A., Ishizuka, T., … Liu, X.. (2019). Expanding the Toolbox of Upconversion Nanoparticles for In Vivo Optogenetics and Neuromodulation. Advanced Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/adma.201803474
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Fandel, T., & Tanagho, E. A.. (2005). Neuromodulation in voiding dysfunction: A historical overview of neurostimulation and its application. Urologic Clinics of North America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2004.09.006
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Zbar, A. P.. (2014). Sacral neuromodulation and peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with anal incontinence: An overview of techniques, complications and troubleshooting. Gastroenterology Report

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/gastro/gou015
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Karri, J., Singh, M., Orhurhu, V., Joshi, M., & Abd-Elsayed, A.. (2020). Pain Syndromes Secondary to Cluneal Nerve Entrapment. Current Pain and Headache Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11916-020-00891-7
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Fekete, Z., Horváth, C., & Zátonyi, A.. (2020). Infrared neuromodulation:A neuroengineering perspective. Journal of Neural Engineering

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1088/1741-2552/abb3b2
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Zhu, A., Qureshi, A. A., Kozin, E. D., & Lee, D. J.. (2020). Concepts in Neural Stimulation: Electrical and Optical Modulation of the Auditory Pathways. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.otc.2019.09.002
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LeBeau, F. E. N., El Manira, A., & Griller, S.. (2005). Tuning the network: Modulation of neuronal microcircuits in the spinal cord and hippocampus. Trends in Neurosciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2005.08.005
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Cha, K. S., Yeo, D., & Kim, K. H.. (2016). Neural signal processing for closed-loop neuromodulation. Biomedical Engineering Letters

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0231-5
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Hoffmann, J., & May, A.. (2019). Neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache syndromes. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2019.1585243
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Martens, F. M. J., & Sievert, K. D.. (2020). Neurostimulation in neurogenic patients. Current Opinion in Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000773
DOI URL
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Harmsen, I. E., Elias, G. J. B., Beyn, M. E., Boutet, A., Pancholi, A., Germann, J., … Lozano, A. M.. (2020). Clinical trials for deep brain stimulation: Current state of affairs. Brain Stimulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2019.11.008
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Chen, Y., Tang, T., & Erdek, M. A.. (2019). Advanced Image-Guided Procedures for Painful Spine. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.nic.2019.07.005
DOI URL
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Mishra, S., Kumar, A., Padmanabhan, P., & Gulyás, B.. (2021). Neurophysiological correlates of cognition as revealed by virtual reality: Delving the brain with a synergistic approach. Brain Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/brainsci11010051
DOI URL
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Christen, M., & Müller, S.. (2017). Editorial: The Clinical and Ethical Practice of Neuromodulation – Deep Brain Stimulation and Beyond. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2017.00032
DOI URL
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Stakenborg, N., & Boeckxstaens, G. E.. (2021). Bioelectronics in the brain-gut axis: Focus on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). International Immunology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/intimm/dxab014
DOI URL
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Serrano-Munoz, D., Taylor, J., Megia-Garcia, A., & Gomez-Soriano, J.. (2019). Neuromodulation for neurorehabilitation of motor disorders for stroke and spinal cord injury: An overview. Neuromodulation
Civelli, O.. (2012). Orphan GPCRs and Neuromodulation. Neuron

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.009
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Wagner, T., Valero-Cabre, A., & Pascual-Leone, A.. (2007). Noninvasive human brain stimulation. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1146/annurev.bioeng.9.061206.133100
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Cho, Y., Park, J., Lee, C., & Lee, S.. (2020). Recent progress on peripheral neural interface technology towards bioelectronic medicine. Bioelectronic Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/s42234-020-00059-z
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Linster, C.. (2014). Neuromodulation: Overview. In Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_787-1
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Lakatos, P., Gross, J., & Thut, G.. (2019). Review A New Unifying Account of the Roles of Neuronal. Current Biology
Bartoli, F., Burnstock, G., Crocamo, C., & Carrà, G.. (2020). Purinergic signaling and related biomarkers in depression. Brain Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/brainsci10030160
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Fellous, J. M., & Linster, C.. (1998). Computational Models of Neuromodulation. Neural Computation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1162/089976698300017476
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Chaudhry, S. R., Stadlbauer, A., Buchfelder, M., & Kinfe, T. M.. (2021). Melatonin moderates the triangle of chronic pain, sleep architecture and immunometabolic traffic. Biomedicines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines9080984
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Konofagou, E.. (2018). Focused ultrasound for modulation of the central and peripheral nervous system. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1121/1.5035647
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Byron, N., Semenova, A., & Sakata, S.. (2021). Mutual interactions between brain states and Alzheimer’s disease pathology: A focus on gamma and slow oscillations. Biology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/biology10080707
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Kohan, L., McKenna, C., & Irwin, A.. (2020). Ilioinguinal Neuropathy. Current Pain and Headache Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11916-020-0833-6
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Chen, S. P., & Ayata, C.. (2017). Novel Therapeutic Targets Against Spreading Depression. Headache

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/head.13154
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Ekhtiari, H., Tavakoli, H., Addolorato, G., Baeken, C., Bonci, A., Campanella, S., … Hanlon, C. A.. (2019). Transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation (tES and TMS) for addiction medicine: A consensus paper on the present state of the science and the road ahead. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.007
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Fridén, J., House, J., Keith, M., Schibli, S., & van Zyl, N.. (2021). Improving hand function after spinal cord injury. Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/17531934211027460
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Anderson, N. D., & Craik, F. I. M.. (2017). 50 years of cognitive aging theory. Journals of Gerontology – Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbw108
DOI URL
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The etymological root of the term “Archon”

How strangely will the Tools of a Tyrant pervert the plain Meaning of Words!
— Samuel Adams

Archon (Greek: ἄρχων, romanized: árchōn) is the Greek term for “ruler”. Cognate derivatives are, e.g., terms such as:

  • monarchy
  • dyarchy
  • hierarchy
  • patriarchy/matriarchy
  • gynarchy
  • autarchy
  • anarchy (etymology discussed subsequently in more detail)

According to Aristotle’s Constitution of the Athenians (78-c. 100), the power and influence of the king first devolved to the archons, and these offices were filled from the aristocracy by elections on a decennial basis.

Archon Eponymos was the primary magistrate, the Polemarch referred to the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was in charge of the religious aspects of society.
Various fraternities and sororities use the title of archon or variations on it. Some Gnostic sects used this term for demons associated with the planetspheres.

3-D computer rendering of an “archon”

The term anarchy is the negation of the term archon (i.e., the negatory prefix *a). It thus means “without a ruler/master”, i.e., human beings that do not accept a master and who do not allow others to rule over them (they are not slaves to anyone). Importantly, this derivation should not be confused with “chaos or without rules”. Anarchy simply is the negation of slavery.

Niemand ist mehr Sklave, als der sich für frei hält, ohne es zu sein. ‘
~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(Transl.: None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free.)

Human beings who are anarchists are thus literally beings that do not accept to be ruled by archons, i.e., they are free and cannot be ruled and suppressed by external forces (they only subordinate themselves to natural law, viz., the timeless universal metaphysical foundation of morality and ethics; cf. the Kantian categorical imperative).

Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
— Immanuel Kant, Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785)

Fulltext: archive.org/details/groundingformet000kant

In this context a quotation by the freedom fighter Malcolm X is of great pertinence.
He asked the following quintessential question concerning the highest of all virtues:

What is the price of freedom?

Answer
Death.

P.S. This does not imply that one has to die to be free, but it means that one has to be willing to risk once own life for the greatest of all goods, viz., the ultimate expression of human potential: Absolute Freedom.
If one is not willing to go “all in” one has lost the quest for freedom a priori because one is not willing to risk what it takes to achieve it. Fear is the inhibitor of freedom. Death is the mother of all fears. Ergo, overcoming the irrational fear of death is a condicio sine qua non for the obtainment of superordinate transcendental values.

Non-cooperation with evil is a sacred duty.
~ Mahatma Gandhi

Freedom comes with wisdom, intrinsically. They are inseparable, and no society wants people to be free. The communist society, the fascist society, the capitalist society, the Hindu, the Mohammedan, the Christian – no society likes people to use their own intelligence because the moment they start using their intelligence they become dangerous – dangerous to the establishment, dangerous to the people who are in power, dangerous to the “haves”; dangerous to all kinds of oppression, exploitation, suppression; dangerous to the churches, dangerous to the states, dangerous to the nations.

In fact, a wise man is afire, alive, aflame. He would like rather to die than to be enslaved. Death will not matter much to him, but he cannot sell his life to all kinds of stupidities, to all kinds of stupid people. He cannot serve them. Hence, the societies down the ages have been supplying you with false knowing. That’s the very function of your schools, colleges, universities.

They don’t serve you, remember, they serve the past, they serve the vested interests. Of course, they go on puffing your ego up bigger and bigger, they go on giving you more and more degrees. Your name becomes longer and longer, but only the name – you go on becoming shorter and shorter. A point comes where there are only certificates and the man has disappeared. First the man carries the certificates, then the certificates carry the man. The man is long dead.
~Osho

Credit Suisse Research Institute “Global Wealth Report” (2018)

Social disparity has reached an extreme level and current statistics indicate that an ultra-rich segment (>1% of the total population) owns ≈50% of the worlds entire wealth, i.e., ≈$140 trillion are owned by a infinitesimal small minority of humanity; but see the Credit Suisse Research Institute “Global Wealth Report” from 2018.
URL: www.credit-suisse.com/corporate/en/research/research-institute/global-wealth-report.html

Credit Suisse. (2018). Global Wealth Databook 2018. Credit Suisse doi.org/10.1038/nbt0910-907

Annie Jacobsen: Inside DARPA – The Pentagon’s Brain

Jacobsen, A.. (2015). The Pentagon’s brain : an uncensored history of DARPA, America’s top secret military research agency. Little, Brown US
Moreno, J. D.. (2012). Mind wars : brain science and the military in the twenty-first century. Bellevue Literary Press
Miranda, R. A., Casebeer, W. D., Hein, A. M., Judy, J. W., Krotkov, E. P., Laabs, T. L., … Ling, G. S. F.. (2014). DARPA-funded efforts in the development of novel brain-computer interface technologies.. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 244, 52–67.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.07.019
DOI URL
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Joseph Goebbels principles of propaganda

„We enter the Reichstag to arm ourselves with democracy’s weapons. If democracy is foolish enough to give us free railway passes and salaries, that is its problem… We are coming neither as friends or neutrals. We come as enemies! As the wolf attacks the sheep, so come we.“ — Joseph Goebbels

„The people’s community must not be a mere phrase, but a revolutionary achievement following from the radical carrying out of the basic life needs of the working class. A ruthless battle against corruption! A war against exploitation, freedom for the workers! The elimination of all economic-capitalist influences on national policy. Maintaining a rotten economic system has nothing to do with nationalism, which is an affirmation of the Fatherland.“ — Joseph Goebbels

A lesser known fact is that Goebbels stratagems were “inspired” by Edward Bernays (who authored the book entitled “Propaganda” in 1928).

Bernays stated the following in his 1965 autobiography:

They were using my books as the basis for a destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany. This shocked me, but I knew any human activity can be used for social purposes or misused for antisocial ones.


Further References

Doob, L. W.. (1950). Goebbels’ Principles of Propaganda. Public Opinion Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/266211
DOI URL
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Meyer, M., & Welch, D.. (2006). Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933-1945. The History Teacher

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/493610
DOI URL
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Propaganda and mass persuasion: a historical encyclopedia, 1500 to the present. (2013). Choice Reviews Online

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5860/choice.41-2561
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Herf, J.. (2005). The “jewish War”: Goebbels and the antisemitic campaigns of the Nazi propaganda ministry. Holocaust and Genocide Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/hgs/dci003
DOI URL
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Welch, D.. (1993). Manufacturing a consensus: Nazi propaganda and the building of a ‘national community’ (volksgemeinschaft). Contemporary European History

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1017/S096077730000028X
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Studies on the financial power élite: Behind the façade of democracy

Davies, W.. (2017). Elite Power under Advanced Neoliberalism. Theory, Culture and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0263276417715072
DOI URL
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Foster, J. B., & Holleman, H.. (2014). The Financial Power Elite. Monthly Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.14452/mr-062-01-2010-05_1
DOI URL
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Hoskin, K. W., & Macve, R. H.. (1986). Accounting and the examination: A genealogy of disciplinary power. Accounting, Organizations and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/0361-3682(86)90027-9
DOI URL
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Froud, J., Johal, S., Moran, M., & Williams, K.. (2017). Outsourcing the State: New Sources of Elite Power. Theory, Culture and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0263276417717791
DOI URL
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Seabrooke, L.. (2009). The Social Sources of Financial Power: Domestic Legitimacy and International Financial Orders. Economic Geography

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2008.tb00397.x
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J. Edgar Hoover on “monstrous conspiracy and morality”

The individual comes face-to-face with a conspiracy so monstrous he cannot believe it exists. The American mind has not come to a realisation of the evil which has been introduced into our midst. It rejects even the assumption that human creatures could espouse a philosophy which must ultimately destroy all that is good and decent.

 

When morals decline and good men do nothing, evil flourishes. A society unwilling to learn from past is doomed. We must never forget our history.

John Edgar Hoover was an American law enforcement administrator and the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. He was appointed as the director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI’s predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his death in 1972 at the age of 77