In logic and philosophy, an argument is an attempt to persuade someone of something, by giving reasons for accepting a particular conclusion as evident. The general structure of an argument in a natural language is that of premises in support of a claim: the conclusion. The structure of some arguments can also be set out in a formal language, and formally-defined “arguments” can be made independently of natural language arguments, as in math, logic and computer science.


Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event, where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first. In common usage, causality is also the relationship between a set of factors (causes) and a phenomenon. Anything that affects an effect is a factor of that effect. A direct factor is a factor that affects an effect directly, that is, without any intervening factors.

Conceptual model

In the most general sense, a model is anything used in any way to represent anything else. Some models are physical objects, for instance, a toy model which may be assembled, and may even be made to work like the object it represents. Whereas, a conceptual model is a model that exists only in the mind. Conceptual models are used to help us know and understand the subject matter they represent.

Process (computing)

In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. It contains the program code and its current activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently. A computer program is a passive collection of instructions; a process is the actual execution of those instructions.


An individual is a person or a specific object. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs or goals. From the 15th century and earlier, and also today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics, individual meant “indivisible”, typically describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning “a person.”. From the seventeenth century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism.

Attitude (psychology)

An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object). Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.”. Attitude can be formed from a person’s past and present. In lay language, attitude may refer to the distinct concept of mood, or be especially synonymous with teenage rebellion.


In science, cognition is a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. Various disciplines, such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science all study cognition. However, the term’s usage varies across disciplines; for example, in psychology and cognitive science, “cognition” usually refers to an information processing view of an individual’s psychological functions.


An informal fallacy is an error in reasoning that does not originate in improper logical form. Arguments committing informal fallacies may be formally valid, but still fallacious. An error that stems from a poor logical form is sometimes called formal fallacy or simply an invalid argument. There are many different informal fallacies, but a few basic types. For instance, material fallacies is error in what the arguer is talking about, while Verbal fallacies is error in how the arguer is talking.

Online and offline

The terms “online” and “offline” (also stylized as “on-line” and “off-line”) have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications. In general, “online” indicates a state of connectivity, while “offline” indicates a disconnected state. The concepts have however been extended from their computing and telecommunication meanings into the area of human interaction and conversation, such that even offline can be used in contrast to the common usage of online.

Digital object identifier

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string (a “digital identifier”) used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic document. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change.