The German term for government is "Regierung", or alternatively "Gubernative". In Latin, "Gubernaculum" refers to a steering oar or a rudder. The "Ship of State" metaphor was put forth by Plato in his Res Publica (lat.: Politea) ≈ 380 BC. It likens the governance of a city-state to the command of a naval vessel and ultimately argues that the only human beings qualified to be the steersmen of this ship are philosopher kings who possesses both a love of wisdom, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life, viz., benevolent men with absolute power who have access to the "the idea of the good" (ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα). Plato writes: "philosophers [must] become kings…or those now called kings [must] … genuinely and adequately philosophize." The term cybernetics was also utilized by Plato in the context of "the study of self-governance" in the Alcibiades to signify the governance of people.
Likewise, kubernētikós translates as “good at steering” from κυβερνάω (kubernáō, “I steer, guide”). In English, the term Cybernetics was coined by U.S. mathematician Norbert Wiener in 1948. The term Cybernetics is etymologically derived from the Greek κυβερνήτης (cybernḗtēs) "steersman, rudder, governor". In French, the term "Cybernétique" was first introduced by the physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère in 1834 his Essai sur la philosophie des sciences in order to refer to the application of science to civil government.

References
1578, Henri Estienne (ed.), Platonis opera quae extant omnia, Vol. 2.

1834, Ampère André-Marie, Essai sur la philosophie des sciences, ou Exposition analytique d'une classification naturelle de toutes les connaissances humaines. Paris.

1948, Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Paris, (Hermann & Cie) & Camb. Mass. (MIT Press) ISBN 978-0-262-73009-9; 2nd revised ed. 1961.

1950, Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings. The Riverside Press (Houghton Mifflin Co.).

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The German term for government is “Regierung”, or alternatively “Gubernative”. In Latin, “Gubernaculum” refers to a steering oar or a rudder. The “Ship of State” metaphor was put forth by Plato in his Res Publica (lat.: Politea) ≈ 380 BC. It likens the governance of a city-state to the command of a naval vessel and ultimately argues that the only human beings qualified to be the captain of this ship are philosopher kings who possesses both a love of wisdom, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life, viz., benevolent men with absolute power who have access to the “the idea of the good” (ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα). Plato writes: “philosophers [must] become kings…or those now called kings [must] … genuinely and adequately philosophize.”
Likewise, kubernētikós translates as “good at steering, good pilot” from κυβερνάω (kubernáō, “I steer, drive, guide, act as a pilot”). In English, the term Cybernetics was coined by U.S. mathematician Norbert Wiener in 1948. The term Cybernetics is derived from the Greek κυβερνήτης (cybernḗtēs) “steersman, rudder, governor”. In French, the term “Cybernétique” was first introduced by the physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère in 1834 his Essai sur la philosophie des sciences in order to refer to the application of science to civil government.

References
Henri Estienne (ed.), Platonis opera quae extant omnia, Vol. 2, 1578.

1948, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Paris, (Hermann & Cie) & Camb. Mass. (MIT Press) ISBN 978-0-262-73009-9; 2nd revised ed. 1961.

1950, The Human Use of Human Beings. The Riverside Press (Houghton Mifflin Co.).


Further References

Jones, J. P.. (1997). What does effective frequency mean in 1997?. Journal of Advertising Research
Krugman, H. E.. (1965). The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement. Public Opinion Quarterly

, 29(3), 349.
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Vittrup, B., & Holden, G. W.. (2011). Exploring the impact of educational television and parent-child discussions on children’s racial attitudes. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2010.01223.x
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Vittrup, B., & Holden, G. W.. (2011). Exploring the Impact of Educational Television and Parent-Child Discussions on Children’s Racial Attitudes. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy

, 11(1), 82–104.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2010.01223.x
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Further References

Vetter, R. J., Becker, T. A., Williams, J. C., & Kipke, D. R.. (2003). The use of ALGEL/spl reg/ as an artificial dura for chronic cortical implant neuroprosthetics. In First International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, 2003. Conference Proceedings.

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Silay, K. M., Dehollain, C., & Declercq, M.. (2011). Numerical Thermal Analysis of a Wireless Cortical Implant with Two-Body Packaging. BioNanoScience

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Björninen, T., Moradi, E., Sydänheimo, L., Carmena, J. M., Rabaey, J. M., & Ukkonen, L.. (2013). Electromagnetic modelling and measurement of antennas for wireless brain-machine interface systems. In 2013 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications, IMWS-BIO 2013 – Proceedings

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Kok, C. L., Siek, L., Gao, F., Zheng, Y., & Lim, W. M.. (2012). An ultra-compact green bio-regulator dedicated for brain cortical implant using a dynamic PSR enhancement technique. In Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS

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Kosta, P., Paknahad, J., Rodriguez, E. S. G., Loizos, K., Roy, A., Talbot, N., … Lazzi, G.. (2018). Electromagnetic Safety Assessment of a Cortical Implant for Vision Restoration. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology

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Parthasarathy, K. S., Cheng, Y. C. N., McAllister, J. P., Shen, Y., Li, J., Deren, K., … Auner, G. W.. (2007). Biocompatibilities of sapphire and borosilicate glass as cortical neuroprostheses. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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Moradi, E., Björninen, T., Sydänheimo, L., Carmena, J. M., Rabaey, J. M., & Ukkonen, L.. (2013). Measurement of wireless link for brain-machine interface systems using human-head equivalent liquid. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters

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Lowery, A. J., Rosenfeld, J. V., Rosa, M. G. P., Brunton, E., Rajan, R., Mann, C., … Pritchard, J.. (2016). Monash Vision Group’s Gennaris Cortical Implant for Vision Restoration. In Artificial Vision

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Mark, M., Björninen, T., Ukkonen, L., Sydänheimo, L., & Rabaey, J. M.. (2011). SAR reduction and link optimization for mm-size remotely powered wireless implants using segmented loop antennas. In 2011 IEEE Radio and Wireless Week, RWW 2011 – 2011 IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems, BioWireleSS 2011

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Lewis, P. M., Ackland, H. M., Lowery, A. J., & Rosenfeld, J. V.. (2015). Restoration of vision in blind individuals using bionic devices: A review with a focus on cortical visual prostheses. Brain Research

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Shetliffe, M. A., Kamboh, A. M., Mason, A., & Oweiss, K. G.. (2007). Impact of lossy compression on neural response characteristics extracted from high-density intra-cortical implant data. In Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology – Proceedings

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Schwiebert, L., Gupta, S. K. S., Auner, P. S. G., Abrams, G., Iezzi, R., & McAllister, P.. (2003). A biomedical smart sensor for the visually impaired

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Luo, Y., Winstead, C., & Chiang, P.. (2012). 125Mbps ultra-wideband system evaluation for cortical implant devices. In Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS

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De Ridder, D., & Vanneste, S.. (2014). Targeting the parahippocampal area by auditory cortex stimulation in tinnitus. Brain Stimulation

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Khan, M. W. A., Bjorninen, T., Sydanheimo, L., & Ukkonen, L.. (2016). Characterization of Two-Turns External Loop Antenna With Magnetic Core for Efficient Wireless Powering of Cortical Implants. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters

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Yan, X., Zhang, X., Chi, W., Ai, H., & Wu, L.. (2015). Comparing the influence of crestal cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone in posterior maxilla bi-cortical dental implantation: A three-dimensional finite element analysis. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica

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Hoenecke, H. R., Tibor, L. M., Elias, D. W., Flores-Hernandez, C., Steinvurzel, J. N., & D’Lima, D. D.. (2012). A quantitative three-dimensional templating method for shoulder arthroplasty: Biomechanical validation in cadavers. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

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Ferguson, S., & Ferguson, S. D.. (1986). High resolution vision prosthesis systems: Research after 15 years. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness
Khan, M. W. A., Bjorninen, T., Sydanheimo, L., & Ukkonen, L.. (2015). Two-turns antenna and magnetic materials for effective powering of mm-size implant in wireless brain-machine interface system. In 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications, IMWS-BIO 2015 – Proceedings

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Morillas, C. A., Romero, S. F., Martinez, A., Pelayo, F. J., & Fernández, E.. (2005). A Computational Tool to Test Neuromorphic Encoding Schemes for Visual Neuroprostheses

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Finally, propaganda will take over literature (present and past) and history, which must be rewritten according to propaganda’s needs. We must not say: this is done by tyrannical, autocratic, totalitarian governments. In fact, it is the result of propaganda itself. Propaganda carries within itself, of intrinsic necessity, the power to take over everything that can serve it.

One cannot make just any propaganda any place for anybody. While propaganda is focused on reaching the individual, it cannot only rely on building off what already exists in the individual. Propaganda must also attach itself to the pre-existing fundamental currents of the society it seeks to influence. The propagandist must know the current tendencies and the stereotypes among the public he is trying to reach. These are indicated by principal symbols of the culture the propagandist wishes to attack since these symbols express the attitudes of a particular culture. Individuals are part of a culture and are therefore psychologically shaped by that culture. The main task of propaganda is to utilize the conditioned symbols as transmitters of that culture to serve its purpose. Propaganda must be a reflection of the fundamental structures of society to be successful and not contradictory of existing opinions. A skillful propagandist does not try to change mass opinion or go against an accepted structure. Only a bad propagandist would make a direct attack on an established, reasoned, durable opinion, accepted cliché, or fixed pattern. Each individual harbors a large number of stereotypes and established tendencies; from this arsenal the propagandist must select those easiest to mobilize, those which will give the greatest strength to the action he wants to precipitate.

Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes (1965/1973) (French: Propagandes; original French edition: 1962) is a book on the subject of propaganda by French philosopher, theologian, legal scholar, and sociologist Jacques Ellul. This book appears to be the first attempt to study propaganda from a sociological approach as well as a psychological one. It presents a sophisticated taxonomy for propaganda, including such paired opposites as political–sociological, vertical–horizontal, rational–irrational, and agitation–integration. The book contains Ellul’s theories about the nature of propaganda to adapt the individual to a society, to a living standard and to an activity aiming to make the individual serve and conform.


Further References

Groom, N., Baudrillard, J., & Grant, I. H.. (2007). Symbolic Exchange and Death. The Modern Language Review

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Baudrillard, J., & Glaser, S. F.. (1994). Simulacrum and Simulation (The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism). The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism
Baudrillard, J.. (1994). Simulacra and simulation / by Jean Baudrillard ; translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. Idea

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Nordin, A. H. M.. (2012). Taking Baudrillard to the fair: Exhibiting China in the world at the Shanghai Expo. Alternatives

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Croissant, J. L.. (2006). The new sexual technobody: Viagra in the hyperreal world. Sexualities

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1363460706065056
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Butterfield, B.. (2007). Ethical Value and Negative Aesthetics: Reconsidering the Baudrillard-Ballard Connection. PMLA

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/463427
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Constable, C.. (2006). Baudrillard reloaded: Interrelating philosophy and film via the Matrix Trilogy. Screen

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Massumi, B.. (1987). Realer than Real: The Simulacrum According to Deleuze and Guattari. Copyright
Rennett, M.. (2009). Baudrillard and The Joe Schmo Show. The International Journal of Baudrillard Studies
Baudrillard, J.. (1972). Simulacra & Simulation* precession of simulacra. Postmodern American Fiction: A Norton Anthology

In 1964 Dr. Mark went on the part-time staff of the Massachusetts General Hospital. He became the Director of Neurosurgery at the Boston City Hospital which position he held until 1986. He and Dr. William Sweet and Dr. Frank Ervin implanted electrodes in the amygdala and hippocampus of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and aggressive behavior, with Dr. Jose Delgado.

www.societyns.org/society/bio.aspx?MemberID=9050

Wexler, D. B., Mark, V. H., & Ervin, F. R.. (1972). Violence and the Brain. Harvard Law Review

, 85(7), 1489.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/1340021
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Blumer, D. P., Williams, H. W., & Mark, V. H.. (1974). The Study and Treatment, on a Neurological Ward, of Abnormally Aggressive Patients with Focal Brain Disease (Part 2 of 2). Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery

, 36(3), 151–176.
Plain numerical DOI: 10.1159/000315444
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Social disparity has reached an extreme level and current statistics indicate that an ultra-rich segment (>1% of the total population) owns ≈50% of the worlds entire wealth, i.e., ≈$140 trillion are owned by a infinitesimal small minority of humanity; but see the Credit Suisse Research Institute “Global Wealth Report” from 2018.
URL: www.credit-suisse.com/corporate/en/research/research-institute/global-wealth-report.html

Credit Suisse. (2018). Global Wealth Databook 2018. Credit Suisse doi.org/10.1038/nbt0910-907
Vitali, S., Glattfelder, J. B., & Battiston, S.. (2011). The Network of Global Corporate Control. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e25995.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025995
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‘In which case, the wisdom of a city founded on natural principles
depends entirely on its smallest group and element – the leading and
ruling element — and the knowledge that element possesses. The class
which can be expected to share in this branch of knowledge, which of all
branches of knowledge is the only one we can call wisdom, is by its nature,
apparently, the smallest class.’


Socrates in dialogue with Glaucon

‘Well, I think the first one to catch the eye is wisdom. And it seems to
have an unusual feature.’

‘What is that?’

‘It is truly wise, I think, this city we have described. It has good judg¬
ment, doesn’t it?’

‘Yes.’

‘Now this thing, judgment, is clearly knowledge of some sort. Good
decisions, I take it, are the result of knowledge, not ignorance.’

‘Obviously.’

‘But our city contains many types of knowledge, of very different
kinds.’

‘Of course it does.’

‘Is it the knowledge possessed by its carpenters which entitles us to call
c our city wise, and say it possesses good judgment?’

‘Certainly not,’ he said. ‘That merely entitles us to call it good at car¬
pentry.’

‘So a city is not to be called wise because of its knowledge and judg¬
ment in making the best possible wooden furniture.’

‘Absolutely not.’

‘How about its knowledge of making things out of bronze, or any other
knowledge of that kind?’

‘No, nothing like that,’ he said.

‘Nor the knowledge of how to grow crops from the soil, since that’s
called farming.’

‘So I believe.’

‘Is there, then,’ I asked, ‘among any of the citizens of this city we have
d just founded, any branch of knowledge which makes decisions about the
city as a whole – deciding on the best approach to itself and to other cities
– and not about one particular element in the city?’

‘There most certainly is.’

‘What is this knowledge, and in which group is it to be found?’

‘It is the knowledge possessed by the guardians,’ he said. ‘And it is
to be found in the rulers, whom we have just been calling the perfect
guardians.’ 11

‘And what is the label you give your city on the strength of this know¬
ledge?’

‘I call it sound in judgment, and truly wise.’
e ‘So which do you think our city will have more of? Metalworkers, or
these true guardians?’

‘Metalworkers,’ he said. ‘Far more.’

‘Of all the groups which have a branch of knowledge of their own, and
which are identified as a group, wouldn’t the guardians be the smallest?’

‘Easily the smallest.’

‘In which case, the wisdom of a city founded on natural principles
depends entirely on its smallest group and element – the leading and
ruling element — and the knowledge that element possesses. The class
which can be expected to share in this branch of knowledge, which of all
branches of knowledge is the only one we can call wisdom, is by its nature,
apparently, the smallest class.’

‘That’s very true,’ he said.

Jacobsen, A.. (2015). The Pentagon’s brain : an uncensored history of DARPA, America’s top secret military research agency. Little, Brown US
Moreno, J. D.. (2012). Mind wars : brain science and the military in the twenty-first century. Bellevue Literary Press
Miranda, R. A., Casebeer, W. D., Hein, A. M., Judy, J. W., Krotkov, E. P., Laabs, T. L., … Ling, G. S. F.. (2014). DARPA-funded efforts in the development of novel brain-computer interface technologies.. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 244, 52–67.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.07.019
DOI URL
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