Genetically engineered cells, nanoparticles and RF magnetic fields
In an embodiment of the invention, the cells to be targeted may be genetically engineered to express one or more genes encoding physiologically active proteins of interest, such as those proteins providing a therapeutic benefit. The cells are genetically engineered in such a way that expression of the protein(s) of interest is induced in the cell upon excitation of the nanoparticles which results in a localized temperature increase or an increase in nanoparticle motion. Alternatively, the cells to be targeted may be engineered to express a non-encoding nucleic acid molecule of interest such as an antisense or siRNA molecule. Additionally, the target cells maybe genetically engineered to express a temperature sensitive protein, such as a temperature sensitive ion channel, wherein an increase in temperature mediated by the excited nanoparticles results in a cellular response through activation of the ion channel.
In another embodiment of the invention, target cells may be engineered to intracellularly express a protein that is capable of acting as an activated nanoparticle upon exposure to a RF magnetic field. Such proteins include for example, the iron storage protein ferritin. Such proteins may be expressed in the cell as fusion proteins to target their location to a specific site within the cell, for example, in close proximity to a temperature sensitive channel.
With new technology, scientists are able to exert wireless control over brain cells of mice with just the push of a button. The first thing they did was make the mice hungry.
*** Friedman and his colleagues have demonstrated a radio-operated remote control for the appetite and glucose metabolism of mice—a sophisticated technique to wirelessly alter neurons in the animals’ brains. At the flick of a switch, they are able to make mice hungry—or suppress their appetite—while the mice go about their lives normally. It’s a tool they are using to unravel the neurological basis of eating, and it is likely to have applications for studies of other hard-wired behaviors.
Friedman, Marilyn M. Simpson Professor, has been working on the technique for several years with Sarah Stanley, a former postdoc in his lab who now is assistant professor at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and collaborators at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Aware of the limitations of existing methods for triggering brain cells in living animals, the group set out to invent a new way. An ideal approach, they reasoned, would be as noninvasive and non-damaging as possible. And it should work quickly and repeatedly.
Although there are other ways to deliver signals to neurons, each has its limitations. In deep-brain stimulation, for example, scientists thread a wire through the brain to place an electrode next to the target cells. But the implant can damage nearby cells and tissues in ways that interfere with normal behavior. Optogenetics, which works similarly but uses fiber optics and a pulse of light rather than electricity, has the same issue. A third strategy—using drugs to activate genetically modified cells bred into mice—is less invasive, but drugs are slow to take effect and wear off.
The solution that Friedman’s group hit upon, referred to as radiogenetics or magnetogenetics, avoids these problems. With their method, published last year in Nature, biologists can turn neurons on or off in a live animal at will—quickly, repeatedly, and without implants—by engineering the cells to make them receptive to radio waves or a magnetic field.
“In effect, we created a perceptual illusion that the animal had a drop in blood sugar.”
“We’ve combined molecules already used in cells for other purposes in a manner that allows an invisible force to take control of an instinct as primal as hunger,” Friedman says.
The method links five very different biological tools, which can look whimsically convoluted, like a Rube Goldberg contraption on a molecular scale. It relies on a green fluorescent protein borrowed from jellyfish, a peculiar antibody derived from camels, squishy bags of iron particles, and the cellular equivalent of a door made from a membrane-piercing protein—all delivered and installed by a genetically engineered virus. The remote control for this contraption is a modified welding tool (though a store-bought magnet also works).
The researchers’ first challenge was to find something in a neuron that could serve as an antenna to detect the incoming radio signal or magnetic field. The logical choice was ferritin, a protein that stores iron in cells in balloon-like particles just a dozen nanometers wide. Iron is essential to cells but can also be toxic, so it is sequestered in ferritin particles until it is needed. Each ferritin particle carries within it thousands of grains of iron that wiggle around in response to a radio signal, and shift and align when immersed in a magnetic field. We all have these particles shimmying around inside our brain cells, but the motions normally have no effect on neurons.
Friedman’s team realized that they could use a genetically engineered virus to create doorways into a neuron’s outer membrane. If they could then somehow attach each door to a ferritin particle, they reasoned, they might be able to wiggle the ferritin enough to jostle the door open. “The ‘door’ we chose is called TRPV1,” says Stanley. “Once TRPV1 is activated, calcium and sodium ions would next flow into the cell and trigger the neuron to fire.” The bits borrowed from camels and jellyfish provided what the scientists needed to connect the door to the ferritin (see How to outfit a brain sidebar, right).
Once the team had the new control mechanism working, they put it to the test. For Friedman and Stanley, whose goal is to unravel the biological causes of overeating and obesity, the first application was obvious: Try to identify specific neurons involved in appetite. The group modified glucose-sensing neurons—cells that are believed to monitor blood sugar levels in the brain and keep them within normal range—to put them under wireless control. To accomplish this, they inserted the TRPV1 and ferritin genes into a virus and—using yet another genetic trick—injected them into the glucose-sensing neurons. They could then fiddle with the cells to see whether they are involved, as suspected, in coordinating feeding and the release of hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, that keep blood glucose levels in check.
How to outfit a brain for radio control
Once the virus had enough time to infect and transform the target neurons, the researchers switched on a radio transmitter tuned to 465 kHz, a little below the band used for AM radio.
The neurons responded. They began to fire, signaling a shortage of glucose even though the animal’s blood sugar levels were normal. And other parts of the body responded just as they would to a real drop in blood sugar: insulin levels fell, the liver started pumping out more glucose, and the animals started eating more. “In effect,” Friedman says, “we created a perceptual illusion that the animal had low blood glucose even though the levels were normal.”
Inspired by these results, the researchers wondered if magnetism, like radio waves, might trigger ferritin to open the cellular doors. It did: When the team put the mice cages close to an MRI machine, or waved a rare-earth magnet over the animals, their glucose-sensing neurons were triggered.
Stimulating appetite is one thing. Could they also suppress it? The group tweaked the TRPV1 gene so it would pass chloride, which acts to inhibit neurons. Now when they inserted the modified TRPV1 into the neurons, the rush of chloride made the neurons behave as if the blood was overloaded with glucose. Insulin production surged in the animals, and they ate less. “This seems to indicate clearly that the brain as well as the pancreas is involved in glucose regulation,” Friedman says.
Friedman and Stanley hope that biologists will be able to use the remote-control system to tackle a range of neural processes other than appetite. And beyond being a basic research tool, the method could potentially lead to novel therapies for brain disorders.
In this review we provide an analysis of recent literature reports on the synthesis and applications of stimuli-responsive polymeric and hybrid nanostructured particles in a range of sizes from nanometers to a few micrometers: nano- and microgels, core–shell structures, polymerosomes, block-copolymer micelles, and more complex architectures. The review consists of two major parts: synthesis and applications of nanoparticles in colloidal dispersions, thin films, delivery devices and sensors. We also broadly discuss potential directions for further developments of this research area.
Motornov, M., Roiter, Y., Tokarev, I., & Minko, S.. (2010). Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, nanogels and capsules for integrated multifunctional intelligent systems. Progress in Polymer Science, 35(1–2), 174–211.
Buwalda, S. J., Boere, K. W. M., Dijkstra, P. J., Feijen, J., Vermonden, T., & Hennink, W. E.. (2014). Hydrogels in a historical perspective: From simple networks to smart materials. Journal of Controlled Release, 190, 254–273.
“Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. emerging knowledge in polymer chemistry and increased understanding of biological processes resulted in the design of versatile materials and minimally invasive therapies. hydrogel matrices comprise a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers held together by a variety of physical or chemical crosslinks. with their capacity to embed pharmaceutical agents in their hydrophilic crosslinked network, hydrogels form promising materials for controlled drug release and tissue engineering. despite all their beneficial properties, there are still several challenges to overcome for clinical translation. in this review, we provide a historical overview of the developments in hydrogel research from simple networks to smart materials.”
“Researchers, engineers, and medical doctors are made aware of the severity of the covid-19 infection and act quickly against the coronavirus sars-cov-2 using a large variety of tools. in this review, a panoply of nanoscience and nanotechnology approaches show how these disciplines can help the medical, technical, and scientific communities to fight the pandemic, highlighting the development of nanomaterials for detection, sanitation, therapies, and vaccines. sars-cov-2, which can be regarded as a functional core–shell nanoparticle (np), can interact with diverse materials in its vicinity and remains attached for variable times while preserving its bioactivity. these studies are critical for the appropriate use of controlled disinfection systems. other nanotechnological approaches are also decisive for the development of improved novel testing and diagnosis kits of coronavirus that are urgently required. therapeutics are based on nanotechnology strategies as well and focus on antiviral drug design and on new nanoarchitectured vaccines. a brief overview on patented work is presented that emphasizes nanotechnology applied to coronaviruses. finally, some comments are made on patents of the initial technological responses to covid-19 that have already been put in practice.”
Yang, D.. (2021). Application of nanotechnology in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Nanomedicine
“COVID-19, caused by sars-cov-2 infection, has been prevalent worldwide for almost a year. in early 2000, there was an outbreak of sars-cov, and in early 2010, a similar dissemination of infection by mers-cov occurred. however, no clear explanation for the spread of sars-cov-2 and a massive increase in the number of infections has yet been proposed. the best solution to overcome this pandemic is the development of suitable and effective vaccines and therapeutics. fortunately, for sars-cov-2, the genome sequence and protein structure have been published in a short period, making research and develop- ment for prevention and treatment relatively easy. in addition, intranasal drug delivery has proven to be an effective method of administration for treating viral lung diseases. in recent years, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have been applied to intranasal drug delivery to overcome various limitations that occur during mucosal administration, and advances have been made to the stage where effective drug delivery is possible. this review describes the accumulated knowledge of the previous sars-cov and mers-cov infections and aims to help understand the newly emerged sars-cov-2 infection. furthermore, it elucidates the achievements in developing covid-19 vaccines and therapeutics to date through existing approaches. finally, the applicable nanotechnology approach is described in detail, and vaccines and therapeutic drugs developed based on nanomedicine, which are currently undergoing clinical trials, have presented the potential to become innovative alternatives for overcoming covid-19.”
Tharayil, A., Rajakumari, R., Chirayil, C. J., Thomas, S., & Kalarikkal, N.. (2021). A short review on nanotechnology interventions against COVID-19. Emergent Materials
“The covid-19 has affected all major aspects of the society in a global perspective. the role of nanotechnology is much sought after in fighting this pandemic. advanced materials based on nanotechnology are the basis of several technologies starting from masks and personal protection equipment to specific diagnostic tools that could diminish the impact of covid-19. development of nanotechnology-based products is therefore an absolute necessity for fight against covid-19. we examine the fundamental concepts related to virology, histopathologic findings and how nanotechnology can help in fighting the disease. in this review we discuss the state of the art and ongoing nanotechnology-based strategies like antiviral coatings, 3d printing and therapeutics to fight against this deadly disease. the importance of using nanoparticles in point of care tests and biosensors is also highlighted.”
Rasmi, Y., Saloua, K. S., Nemati, M., & Choi, J. R.. (2021). Recent progress in nanotechnology for covid-19 prevention, diagnostics and treatment. Nanomaterials
“The covid-19 pandemic is currently an unprecedented public health threat. the rapid spread of infections has led to calls for alternative approaches to combat the virus. nanotechnology is taking root against sars-cov-2 through prevention, diagnostics and treatment of infections. in light of the escalating demand for managing the pandemic, a comprehensive review that highlights the role of nanomaterials in the response to the pandemic is highly desirable. this review article comprehensively discusses the use of nanotechnology for covid-19 based on three main categories: prevention, diagnostics and treatment. we first highlight the use of various nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, carbon-based nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles for covid-19. we critically review the benefits of nanomaterials along with their applications in personal protective equipment, vaccine development, diagnostic device fabrication and therapeutic approaches. the remaining key challenges and future directions of nanomaterials for covid-19 are briefly discussed. this review is very informative and helpful in providing guidance for developing nanomaterial-based products to fight against covid-19.”
Chauhan, G., Madou, M. J., Kalra, S., Chopra, V., Ghosh, D., & Martinez-Chapa, S. O.. (2020). Nanotechnology for COVID-19: Therapeutics and Vaccine Research. ACS Nano
“The current global health threat by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) requires an urgent deployment of advanced therapeutic options available. the role of nanotechnology is highly relevant to counter this ‘virus’ nano enemy. nano intervention is discussed in terms of designing effective nanocarriers to counter the conventional limitations of antiviral and biological therapeutics. this strategy directs the safe and effective delivery of available therapeutic options using engineered nanocarriers, blocking the initial interactions of viral spike glycoprotein with host cell surface receptors, and disruption of virion construction. controlling and eliminating the spread and reoccurrence of this pandemic demands a safe and effective vaccine strategy. nanocarriers have potential to design risk-free and effective immunization strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine candidates such as protein constructs and nucleic acids. we discuss recent as well as ongoing nanotechnology-based therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to fight against this pandemic, outlining the key areas for nanoscientists to step in.”
Tang, Z., Zhang, X., Shu, Y., Guo, M., Zhang, H., & Tao, W.. (2021). Insights from nanotechnology in COVID-19 treatment. Nano Today
“In just a few months, sars-cov-2 and the disease it causes, covid-19, created a worldwide pandemic. virologists, biologists, pharmacists, materials scientists, and clinicians are collaborating to develop efficient treatment strategies. overall, in addition to the use of clinical equipment to assist patient rehabilitation, antiviral drugs and vaccines are the areas of greatest focus. given the physical size of sars-cov-2 and the vaccine delivery platforms currently in clinical trials, the relevance of nanotechnology is clear, and previous antiviral research using nanomaterials also supports this connection. herein we briefly summarize current representative strategies regarding nanomaterials in antiviral research. we focus specifically on sars-cov-2 and the detailed role that nanotechnology can play in addressing this pandemic, including i) using fda-approved nanomaterials for drug/vaccine delivery, including further exploration of the inhalation pathway; ii) introducing promising nanomaterials currently in clinical trials for drug/vaccine delivery; iii) designing novel biocompatible nanomaterials to combat the virus via interfering in its life cycle; and iv) promoting the utilization of nanomaterials in pneumonia treatment.”
Singh, Y. D., Ningthoujam, R., Panda, M. K., Jena, B., Babu, P. J., & Mishra, A. K.. (2021). Insight from nanomaterials and nanotechnology towards COVID-19. Sensors International
“The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) becomes one of the most dreadful disease in the history of mankind in the entire world. the covid-19 outbreak started from wuhan city of china and then rapidly transmitted throughout the world causing mass destruction and seldom. this sporadical disease has taken many lives due to sudden outbreak and no particular vaccines were available at the early wave. all the vaccines developed are mostly targeted to spike protein of the virus which involves the encapsulation of mrna and nanoparticles. nanotechnology intervention in fighting against the covid-19 is one way to tackle the disease from different angles including nano coating mask, nano diagnostic kits, nano sanitizer, and nano medicine. this article highlights the intervention of nanotechnology and its possible treatment against the covid-19. it is high time to come together all the units of material science and biological science to fight against the dreadful covid-19. as an alternative strategy, a multidisciplinary research effort, consisting of classical epidemiology and clinical methodologies, drugs and nanotechnology, engineering science and biological apprehension, can be adopted for developing improved drugs exhibiting antiviral activities. the employment of nanotechnology and its allied fields can be explored to detect, treat, and prevent the covid-19 disease.”
Paliwal, P., Sargolzaei, S., Bhardwaj, S. K., Bhardwaj, V., Dixit, C., & Kaushik, A.. (2020). Grand Challenges in Bio-Nanotechnology to Manage the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Nanotechnology
“The outbreak of the covid-19, a human beta coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars-cov-2) virus infection, has severely affected the world. the pandemic is not yet in full control due to a lack of rapid diagnostics and therapeutics. this viral infection continues to result in a steadily increasing loss of life, and it has also emerged as a significant global socio-economic burden. as result, it has united many countries for the purposes of exploring molecular biology, biomedical science, and the nanotechnology to manage covid-19 successfully. as of today, the current priority is to investigate novel therapies of high efficacy and smart diagnostics tools for early-stage disease diagnostics along with monitoring. keeping these advancement and challenges in mind, this perspective article mainly highlights the contribution and possibilities of bio-nanotechnology to manage the covid-19 pandemic, even in a personalized manner. authors also pinpoint barriers to the utilization of current bio-nanotechnology to facilitate a more accurate understanding of covid-19 and to lead the way toward personalized health and wellness. furthermore, we follow the discussion of the features and challenges in upcoming bio-nanotechnology approaches for covid-19 management. in this progressive option report, bio-nanotechnologies that have been enriched with the power of artificial intelligence and optimized at the personalized level have been found to lead to a sustainable treatment and cure strategy at a global population scale.”
Campos, E. V. R., Pereira, A. E. S., De Oliveira, J. L., Carvalho, L. B., Guilger-Casagrande, M., De Lima, R., & Fraceto, L. F.. (2020). How can nanotechnology help to combat COVID-19? Opportunities and urgent need. Journal of Nanobiotechnology
“Incidents of viral outbreaks have increased at an alarming rate over the past decades. the most recent human coronavirus known as covid-19 (sars-cov-2) has already spread around the world and shown r0 values from 2.2 to 2.68. however, the ratio between mortality and number of infections seems to be lower in this case in comparison to other human coronaviruses (such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov)). these outbreaks have tested the limits of healthcare systems and have posed serious questions about management using conventional therapies and diagnostic tools. in this regard, the use of nanotechnology offers new opportunities for the development of novel strategies in terms of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of covid-19 and other viral infections. in this review, we discuss the use of nanotechnology for covid-19 virus management by the development of nano-based materials, such as disinfectants, personal protective equipment, diagnostic systems and nanocarrier systems, for treatments and vaccine development, as well as the challenges and drawbacks that need addressing.[figure not available: see fulltext.]”
Tavares, J. L., Cavalcanti, I. D. L., Santos Magalhães, N. S., & Lira Nogueira, M. C. de B.. (2022). Nanotechnology and COVID-19: quo vadis?. Journal of Nanoparticle Research
“The pandemic covid-19 has worried everyone due to the high mortality rate and the high number of people hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by sars-cov-2. given the seriousness of this disease, several companies and research institutions have sought alternative treatment and/or prevention methods for covid-19. due to its versatility, nanotechnology has allowed the development of protective equipment and vaccines to prevent the disease and reduce the number of severe covid-19 cases. thus, this article combined the main works and products developed in a nanotechnological field for covid-19. we performed a literature search using the keywords ‘covid-19,’ ‘sars-cov-2,’ ‘nanoparticles,’ ‘nanotechnology,’ and ‘liposomes’ in the scielo, scifinder, pubmed, sciencedirect, clinicaltrials, and nanotechnology products databases database. the data survey indicated 48 articles, 62 products, and 32 patents. the use of nanotechnology against covid-19 has brought benefits in several parameters of this disease, helping develop rapid diagnostic tests that release the result in 10 min, as well as developing vaccines containing genetic material from sars-cov-2 (dna, mrna, and protein subunits). nanotechnology is an exceptional ally against covid-19, contributing to the most diverse areas, helping both prevent, diagnose, and treat covid-19.”
Vahedifard, F., & Chakravarthy, K.. (2021). Nanomedicine for COVID-19: the role of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of COVID-19. Emergent Materials
“Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has caused the recent outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (covid-19). although nearly two decades have passed since the emergence of pandemics such as sars-cov and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov), no effective drug against the cov family has yet been approved, so there is a need to find newer therapeutic targets. currently, simultaneous research across the globe is being performed to discover efficient vaccines or drugs, including both conventional therapies used to treat previous similar diseases and emerging therapies like nanomedicine. nanomedicine has already proven its value through its application drug delivery and nanosensors in other diseases. nanomedicine and its components can play an important role in various stages of prevention, diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, and research related to covid-19. nano-based antimicrobial technology can be integrated into personal equipment for the greater safety of healthcare workers and people. various nanomaterials such as quantum dots can be used as biosensors to diagnose covid-19. nanotechnology offers benefits from the use of nanosystems, such as liposomes, polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, and micelles, for drug encapsulation, and facilitates the improvement of pharmacological drug properties. antiviral functions for nanoparticles can target the binding, entry, replication, and budding of covid-19. the toxicity-related inorganic nanoparticles are one of the limiting factors of its use that should be further investigated and modified. in this review, we are going to discuss nanomedicine options for covid-19 management, similar applications for related viral diseases, and their gap of knowledge.”
Singh, P., Singh, D., Sa, P., Mohapatra, P., Khuntia, A., & Sahoo, S. K.. (2021). Insights from nanotechnology in COVID-19: Prevention, detection, therapy and immunomodulation. Nanomedicine
“The outbreak of sars-cov-2 infection has presented the world with an urgent demand for advanced diagnostics and therapeutics to prevent, treat and control the spread of infection. nanotechnology seems to be highly relevant in this emergency due to the unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials which offer versatile chemical functionalization to create advanced biomedical tools. here, nano-intervention is discussed for designing effective strategies in developing advanced personal protective equipment kits, disinfectants, rapid and cost-effective diagnostics and therapeutics against the infection. we have also highlighted the nanoparticle-based vaccination approaches and how nanoparticles can regulate the host immune system against infection. overall, this review discusses various nanoformulations that have shown clinical relevance or can be explored in the fight against covid-19.”
Hasanzadeh, A., Alamdaran, M., Ahmadi, S., Nourizadeh, H., Bagherzadeh, M. A., Mofazzal Jahromi, M. A., … Hamblin, M. R.. (2021). Nanotechnology against COVID-19: Immunization, diagnostic and therapeutic studies. Journal of Controlled Release
“The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) in early 2020 soon led to the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). since then, the clinical and scientific communities have been closely collaborating to develop effective strategies for controlling the ongoing pandemic. the game-changing fields of recent years, nanotechnology and nanomedicine have the potential to not only design new approaches, but also to improve existing methods for the fight against covid-19. nanomaterials can be used in the development of highly efficient, reusable personal protective equipment, and antiviral nano-coatings in public settings could prevent the spread of sars-cov-2. smart nanocarriers have accelerated the design of several therapeutic, prophylactic, or immune-mediated approaches against covid-19. some nanovaccines have even entered phase iι/iiι clinical trials. several rapid and cost-effective covid-19 diagnostic techniques have also been devised based on nanobiosensors, lab-on-a-chip systems, or nanopore technology. here, we provide an overview of the emerging role of nanotechnology in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of covid-19.”
Weiss, C., Carriere, M., Fusco, L., Fusco, L., Capua, I., Regla-Nava, J. A., … Delogu, L. G.. (2020). Toward Nanotechnology-Enabled Approaches against the COVID-19 Pandemic. ACS Nano
“The covid-19 outbreak has fueled a global demand for effective diagnosis and treatment as well as mitigation of the spread of infection, all through large-scale approaches such as specific alternative antiviral methods and classical disinfection protocols. based on an abundance of engineered materials identifiable by their useful physicochemical properties through versatile chemical functionalization, nanotechnology offers a number of approaches to cope with this emergency. here, through a multidisciplinary perspective encompassing diverse fields such as virology, biology, medicine, engineering, chemistry, materials science, and computational science, we outline how nanotechnology-based strategies can support the fight against covid-19, as well as infectious diseases in general, including future pandemics. considering what we know so far about the life cycle of the virus, we envision key steps where nanotechnology could counter the disease. first, nanoparticles (nps) can offer alternative methods to classical disinfection protocols used in healthcare settings, thanks to their intrinsic antipathogenic properties and/or their ability to inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi, or yeasts either photothermally or via photocatalysis-induced reactive oxygen species (ros) generation. nanotechnology tools to inactivate sars-cov-2 in patients could also be explored. in this case, nanomaterials could be used to deliver drugs to the pulmonary system to inhibit interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) receptors and viral s protein. moreover, the concept of ‘nanoimmunity by design’can help us to design materials for immune modulation, either stimulating or suppressing the immune response, which would find applications in the context of vaccine development for sars-cov-2 or in counteracting the cytokine storm, respectively. in addition to disease prevention and therapeutic potential, nanotechnology has important roles in diagnostics, with potential to support the development of simple, fast, and cost-effective nanotechnology-based assays to monitor the presence of sars-cov-2 and related biomarkers. in summary, nanotechnology is critical in counteracting covid-19 and will be vital when preparing for future pandemics.”
Rangayasami, A., Kannan, K., Murugesan, S., Radhika, D., Sadasivuni, K. K., Reddy, K. R., & Raghu, A. V.. (2021). Influence of nanotechnology to combat against COVID-19 for global health emergency: A review. Sensors International
“Covid 2019 is spreading and emerging rapidly all over the world as a new social disaster. this virus is accountable for the continuous epidemic that causes severe respiratory problems and pneumonia related to contamination of humans, which leads to a dangerous condition of life. due to the increasing threatening number of cases all over the world, the world health organization (who) declared coronavirus as a global health emergency. the pandemic disease affected nearly 80 million people positive cases were reported worldwide till now and cause the death of more than 1.7 million people. the virus has novel characteristics types of pathogens. many clarifications are done and much more are still unknown and pending. the collaborative research will be useful during this pandemic time in order to meet the improvement of global health improvement. it will also help to know about the knowledge of this covid-19. recent advancements in nanotechnology proved that they can help in the production of vaccines in a brief timeframe. in this review, the requirement for quick immunization improvement and the capability and implementation of nanotechnology combat against coronavirus disease were discussed.”
Chintagunta, A. D., Sai Krishna, M., Nalluru, S., & Sampath Kumar, N. S.. (2021). Nanotechnology: an emerging approach to combat COVID-19. Emergent Materials
“The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (covid-19) has challenged the survival of human existence in the last 1 year. frontline healthcare professionals were struggling in combating the pandemic situation and were continuously supported with literature, skill set, research activities, and technologies developed by various scientists/researchers all over the world. to handle the continuously mutating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) requires amalgamation of conventional technology with emerging approaches. nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology dealing at the nanoscale level. it has made possible the development of nanomaterials, nano-biosensors, nanodrugs, and vaccines for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of covid-19. this review has elaborately highlighted the role of nanotechnology in developing various detection kits such as nanoparticle-assisted diagnostics, antibody assay, lateral flow immunoassay, nanomaterial biosensors, etc., in detection of sars-cov-2. similarly, various advancements supervene through nanoparticle-based therapeutic drugs for inhibiting viral infection by blocking virus attachment/cell entry, multiplication/replication, and direct inactivation of the virus. furthermore, information on vaccine development and the role of nanocarriers/nanoparticles were highlighted with a brief outlining of nanomaterial usage in sterilization and preventive mechanisms engineered to combat covid-19 pandemic.”
Cardoso, V. M. de O., Moreira, B. J., Comparetti, E. J., Sampaio, I., Ferreira, L. M. B., Lins, P. M. P., & Zucolotto, V.. (2020). Is Nanotechnology Helping in the Fight Against COVID-19?. Frontiers in Nanotechnology
“The novel coronavirus disease (covid-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented public health concern. the disease, which has an incredibly high spreading rate, was discovered in late december 2019, in wuhan, hubei province, china. the virus that causes covid-19, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), is responsible for the infection of more than 21.8 million individuals and more than 772 thousand deaths in 216 countries, numbers which are still rising. currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments officially approved for the prevention or treatment of covid-19. since its appearance, several therapeutic approaches have been tested, including the use of repurposing drugs, such as broad-spectrum antivirals, nucleoside analogs, protease inhibitors, immunomodulators, and plasma therapies, among others. however, these strategies have not shown great clinical benefits and are only administered to attenuate the symptoms. although many therapeutic strategies are being tested against covid-19, more efforts should be devoted to fighting the virus. nanomaterials represent a powerful tool against covid-19 since they can be designed to act directly toward the infection, increase the effectiveness of conventional antiviral drugs, or even to trigger the immune response of the patient. advances in nanotechnology over the past decades allow us to develop new nanomaterials and step forward in the application of new technological tools. this review addresses aspects related to the structural characteristics of the virus, the mechanisms involved in the infection, and therapies that are currently used against covid-19. this review discusses nanotechnology-based strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of covid-19, including nanomaterials for face masks and surface sterilization, adjuvants, vaccine delivery nanosystems, and point-of-care tests, providing a perspective on how nanotechnology could be an applied in the fight against covid-19.”
Tavakol, S., Zahmatkeshan, M., Mohammadinejad, R., Mehrzadi, S., Joghataei, M. T., Alavijeh, M. S., & Seifalian, A.. (2021). The role of nanotechnology in current COVID-19 outbreak. Heliyon
“COVID-19 has recently become one of the most challenging pandemics of the last century with deadly outcomes and a high rate of reproduction number. it emphasizes the critical need for the designing of efficient vaccines to prevent virus infection, early and fast diagnosis by the high sensitivity and selectivity diagnostic kits, and effective antiviral and protective therapeutics to decline and eliminate the viral load and side effects derived from tissue damages. therefore, non-toxic antiviral nanoparticles (nps) have been under development for clinical application to prevent and treat covid-19. nps showed great promise to provide nano vaccines against viral infections. here, we discuss the potentials of nps that may be applied as a drug itself or as a platform for the aim of drug and vaccine repurposing and development. meanwhile, the advanced strategies based on nps to detect viruses will be described with the goal of encouraging scientists to design effective and cost-benefit nanoplatforms for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.”
Du, L., Yang, Y., Zhang, X., & Li, F.. (2022). Recent advances in nanotechnology-based COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Nanoscale
“COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and millions of deaths. it is imperative to develop effective countermeasures against the causative viral agent, sars-cov-2 and its many variants. vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are the most effective approaches for preventing and treating covid-19, respectively. sars-cov-2 enters host cells through the activities of the virus-surface spike (s) protein. accordingly, the s protein is a prime target for vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. dealing with particles with dimensions on the scale of nanometers, nanotechnology has emerged as a critical tool for rapidly designing and developing safe, effective, and urgently needed vaccines and therapeutics to control the covid-19 pandemic. for example, nanotechnology was key to the fast-track approval of two mrna vaccines for their wide use in human populations. in this review article, we first explore the roles of nanotechnology in battling covid-19, including protein nanoparticles (for presentation of protein vaccines), lipid nanoparticles (for formulation with mrnas), and nanobodies (as unique therapeutic antibodies). we then summarize the currently available covid-19 vaccines and therapeutics based on nanotechnology. this journal is”
Chaudhary, V., Royal, A., Chavali, M., & Yadav, S. K.. (2021). Advancements in research and development to combat COVID-19 using nanotechnology. Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering
“The whole world is currently facing a global health crisis due to the coronavirus disease (covid-19) pandemic caused by sars coronavirus 2, which started in wuhan city, china, in december 2019. the pandemic has affected 235 countries, areas or territories and infected over 42 million people across the globe as per who update on 27 october 2020. more than 1.1 million people have died and the numbers are increasing daily. however, some drugs have been authorized for emergency treatment of patients, medication and vaccines with proven efficacy to prevent and treat the disease is still under various phases of development. the entire world is consistently making efforts to address three major challenges related to covid-19 including prevention of its spread, prompt and early diagnosis and treatment of patients to save lives. touted as one of the game-changing technologies of the century, nanotechnology has huge potential to develop solutions against these three major challenges of the disease. nanotechnology comprises of multidisciplinary prospects encompassing diverse disciplines including medicine, material science, artificial intelligence, environment, virology, physical sciences, chemistry and biology. the numerous challenges can be addressed through the engineering of the various physicochemical properties of materials presents in abundance in nature. various claims, studies and reports on research and development to combat these challenges associated with covid-19 have been collectively discussed in this article from the perspectives of nanotechnology.”
Rai, M., Bonde, S., Yadav, A., Bhowmik, A., Rathod, S., Ingle, P., & Gade, A.. (2021). Nanotechnology as a shield against covid-19: Current advancement and limitations. Viruses
“The coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is a global health problem that the who declared a pandemic. covid19 has resulted in a worldwide lockdown and threatened to topple the global economy. the mortality of covid-19 is comparatively low compared with previous sars outbreaks, but the rate of spread of the disease and its morbidity is alarming. this virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people of all ages are susceptible to this virus. with the advancements in nanotechnology, their remarkable properties, including their ability to amplify signal, can be used for the development of nanobiosensors and nanoimaging techniques that can be used for early-stage detection along with other diagnostic tools. nano-based protection equipment and disinfecting agents can provide much-needed protection against sars-cov-2. moreover, nanoparticles can serve as a carrier for antigens or as an adjuvant, thereby making way for the development of a new generation of vaccines. the present review elaborates the role of nanotechnology-based tactics used for the detection, diagnosis, protection, and treatment of covid-19 caused by the sars-cov-2 virus.”
Dube, A., Egieyeh, S., & Balogun, M.. (2021). A perspective on nanotechnology and covid-19 vaccine research and production in south africa. Viruses
“Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the development of a new generation of vaccines, which are playing a critical role in the global control of the covid-19 pandemic and the return to normalcy. vaccine development has been conducted, by and large, by countries in the global north. south africa, as a major emerging economy, has made extensive investments in nanotechnology and bioinformatics and has the expertise and resources in vaccine development and manufacturing. this has been built at a national level through decades of investment. in this perspective article, we provide a synopsis of the investments made in nanotechnology and highlight how these could support innovation, research, and development for vaccines for this disease. we also discuss the application of bioinformatics tools to support rapid and cost-effective vaccine development and make recommendations for future research and development in this area to support future health challenges.”
Tyagi, P. K., Tyagi, S., Kumar, A., Ahuja, A., & Gola, D.. (2021). Contribution of nanotechnology in the fight against covid-19. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry
“Coronavirus disease (covid-19) is a respiratory infectious disease caused by a newly discovered virus strain, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2). this pandemic spread quickly across nations with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. this contagious disease posed a serious threat to health systems. it impacted the continents of the earth in a way that could not have been predicted. therefore, many leading funding agencies announced the call for proposal to diagnosis and treatment of covid-19 pandemic using advanced technology-based methods, including nanotechnology. the researchers coming from the nanotechnology community can contribute their efforts to cope with covid-19. as a community member of nanotechnology, we suggest some new research targets that can be designed and improved, optimized, and developed the existing/new materials in the sub-field of diagnostics and healthcare of nanotechnology. the potential research targets to fight against covid-19 includes point-of-care diagnostics (pocd), surveillance and monitoring, novel therapeutics, vaccine development, research, and development, repurposing existing drugs with potential therapeutic applications, development of antiviral nanocoating/antimicrobial spray-based coating for ppe, magnetic nanoparticles and viral rna and rapid detection kits.”
De M Ribeiro, L. N., & Fonseca, B. B.. (2020). The role of pharmaceutical nanotechnology in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Future Microbiology
“There is no effective therapy against covid-19 available so far. in the last months, different drugs have been tested as potential treatments for covid-19, exhibiting high toxicity and low efficacy. therefore, nanotechnology can be applied to improve the therapeutic action and minimize the toxicity of loaded drugs. in this review, we summarized the drugs tested as covid-19 treatment and the advantages of antiviral nanostructured drug-delivery systems. such systems have demonstrated low in vitro toxicity with better in vitro antiviral activity than free drugs. we believe that this approach should inspire novel nanostructured drug-delivery systems developments to find efficient covid-19 treatments. here, we discuss the remaining challenges for such promising nanosystems to be approved for clinical use.”
Chung, Y. H., Beiss, V., Fiering, S. N., & Steinmetz, N. F.. (2020). Covid-19 vaccine frontrunners and their nanotechnology design. ACS Nano
“Humanity is experiencing a catastrophic pandemic. sars-cov-2 has spread globally to cause significant morbidity and mortality, and there still remain unknowns about the biology and pathology of the virus. even with testing, tracing, and social distancing, many countries are struggling to contain sars-cov-2. covid-19 will only be suppressible when herd immunity develops, either because of an effective vaccine or if the population has been infected and is resistant to reinfection. there is virtually no chance of a return to pre-covid-19 societal behavior until there is an effective vaccine. concerted efforts by physicians, academic laboratories, and companies around the world have improved detection and treatment and made promising early steps, developing many vaccine candidates at a pace that has been unmatched for prior diseases. as of august 11, 2020, 28 of these companies have advanced into clinical trials with moderna, cansino, the university of oxford, biontech, sinovac, sinopharm, anhui zhifei longcom, inovio, novavax, vaxine, zydus cadila, institute of medical biology, and the gamaleya research institute having moved beyond their initial safety and immunogenicity studies. this review analyzes these frontrunners in the vaccine development space and delves into their posted results while highlighting the role of the nanotechnologies applied by all the vaccine developers.”