Social identity is the portion of an individual’s self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group. As originally formulated by social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s and the 1980s, social identity theory introduced the concept of a social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behaviour.
Social identity theory (SIT) is described as a theory that predicts certain intergroup behaviours on the basis of perceived group status differences, the perceived legitimacy and stability of those status differences, and the perceived ability to move from one group to another. This contrasts with occasions where the term “social identity theory” is used to refer to general theorizing about human social selves. Moreover, and although some researchers have treated it as such, social identity theory was never intended to be a general theory of social categorization. It was awareness of the limited scope of social identity theory that led John Turner and colleagues to develop a cousin theory in the form of self-categorization theory, which built on the insights of social identity theory to produce a more general account of self and group processes. The term social identity approach, or social identity perspective, is suggested for describing the joint contributions of both social identity theory and self-categorization theory. Social identity theory suggests that an organization (or any other group-membership) can change individual behaviors if it can modify their self-identity or part of their self-concept that derives from the knowledge of, and emotional attachment to the group.
Music has significant effects on social identity. Already Aristotle and Plato argued that the “harmonics of music effect the harmony within society”. Today’s music industry (which is highly centralized) exerts powerful influences on society, especially on children and adolescents. The effects of today’s mainstream music on social identity are extremely worrisome (to say the least). The systematic (large scale) manipulation of social identities is an important tool of social engineering (cf. Adorno/Frankfurter school). Unfortunately there are almost no protective mechanisms in place which could prevent vulnerable populations from “weaponized music“. Music can be effectively utilized to destabilize society (via social identity) and it is thus a tool of psychological warfare, for instance, via systematic demoralization (violence, aggression, sexual promiscuity, ego-reinforcement, importance of money/materialistic thinking, etc.). Statistical research has demonstrated significant correlations between music and various detrimental behaviours (drug use, violence, promiscuity, etc.) and psychopathology. Music can be used to induce trance and manipulate basal unconscious processes. From a “mental hygiene” point of view the conclusion is clear: Be careful what enters your ears because it will effect your (unconscious) mind and your social identity (in analogy to the effects of unhealthy food intake and physical health). However, vice versa the flip-side holds also true: Music can be used to elevate the mind and foster moral and ethical behaviour (viz., harmony and virtues). However, this is clearly NOT happening.
Brown, R.. (2000). Social identity theory: past achievements, current problems and future challenges. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(6), 745–778.
“This article presents a critical review of social identity theory[ its major contributions to the study of inter`roup relations are discussed focusin` on its powerful explanations of such phenomena as in`roup bias responses of subordinate `roups to their unequal status position and intra`roup homo`eneity and stereotypin`[ in addition its stimulative role for theoretical elaborations of the contact hypothesis as a strate`y for improvin` inter`roup attitudes is noted[ then _ve issues which have proved problematic for social identity theory are ident! i_ed] the relationship between `roup identi_cation and in`roup bias^ the self!esteem hypoth! esis^ positiveðne`ative asymmetry in inter`roup discrimination^ the effects of inter`roup similarity^ and the choice of identity strate`ies by low!status `roups[ in a third section a future research a`enda for the theory is sketched out with _ve lines of enquiry noted as bein` particularly promisin`] expandin` the concept of social identity^ predictin` comparison choice in inter`roup settin`s^ incorporatin` affect into the theory^ mana`in` social identities in multicultural settin`s^ and inte`ratin` implicit and explicit processes[ the article concludes with some remarks on the potential applications of social identity principles[”
Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E.. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly
“Identity theory and social identity theory have more points of overlap than differences in their understanding of the self. for this reason, we argue that the unification of these two theories is advisable in order to both avoid redundancies in theorizing about the self and to provide a uniform approach to the multifaceted nature of identities in terms of their bases, their processes, and their outcomes. in this paper, we discuss the similarities and differences between the two theories, and then offer a unified identity theory based on 21 theoretical definitions, assumptions, and heuristics. following this, we demonstrate how the unified theory can be used to explain somewhat anomalous findings in two recent studies, one in the tradition of social identity theory and the other in the tradition of identity theory.”
Calhoun, C.. (1994). Social theory and the politics of identity. Social Psychology Quarterly
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“N.b. son chapitre 1 (m me titre) est en gros le m me texte que chapitre sur identity politics ds critical social theory”
Castells, M., Himanen, P., Castells, M., & Himanen, P.. (2011). The Power of Identity. In The Information Society and the Welfare State
“‘The power of identity’ is the second volume of manuel castells’ trilogy, ‘the information age: economy, society, and culture.’ it deals with the social, political, and cultural dynamics associated with the technological transformation of our societies and with the globalization of the economy. it analyzes the importance of cultural, religious, and national identities as sources of meaning for people, and the implications of these identities for social movements. it studies grassroots mobilizations against the unfettered globalization of wealth and power, and considers the formation of alternative projects of social organization, as represented by the environmental movement and the women’s movement. it also analyzes the crisis of the nation-state and its transformation into a network state, and the effects on political democracies of the difficulties of international governance and the submission of political representation to the dictates of media politics and the politics of scandal. this substantially expanded second edition updates and elaborates the analysis of these themes, adding new sections on al-qaeda and global terrorist networks, on the anti-globalization movement, on american unilateralism and the conflicts of global governance, on the crisis of political legitimacy throughout the world, and on the theory of the network state.”
Ellemers, N., & Haslam, S. A.. (2012). Social Identity Theory. In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (pp. 379–398). 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd
“See, stats, and : https : // www. researchgate. net/ publication/ 281208338 social chapter reads 1 , 444 1 : gazi grenoble 61 see all – text, letting . available : gazi retrieved : 14 journal of personality and social psychology , 67 , 741 – 763 . sidanius , j . , & pratto , f . (1999) . social dominance : an intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression .”
Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J., & White, K. M.. (1995). A Tale of Two Theories: A Critical Comparison of Identity Theory with Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(4), 255.
“Identity theory and social identity theory are two remarkably similar perspectives an the dynamic mediation of the socially constructed self between individual behavior and social structure. yet there is almost no systematic communication between these two perspectivies; they occupy parallel but separate universes. this article describes both theories, summarizes their similarities, critically discusses their differences, and outlines some research directions. against a background of metatheoretical similarity, we find marked differences in terms of 1) level of analysis, 2) the role of intergroup behavior, 3) the relationship between roles and groups, and 4) salience of social context and identity. differences can be traced largely to the microsociological roots of identity theory and the psychological roots of social identity theory. identity theory may be more effective in dealing with chronic identities and with interpersonal social interaction, while social identity theory may be more useful in txploring intergroup dimens1-ons and in specifying the sociocognitive genermive details of identity dynamics.”
Holzapfel, S. D., Bosch, P. R., Lee, C. D., Pohl, P. S., Szeto, M., Heyer, B., & Ringenbach, S. D.. (2019). Acute Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Post-Stroke Motor Function: A Pilot Study. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, 2019, 1–10.
“Background. stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability in the united states (us). assisted cycling therapy (act) at cadences of about 80 rpm has been associated with improvements in motor and clinical function in other clinical populations. the acute effects of act on motor function of persons with stroke have not been investigated. objectives. the primary purpose of this cross-over trial was to compare the effects of act, voluntary cycling (vc), and no cycling (nc) on upper (box and blocks test) and lower extremity motor function (lower extremity motor coordination test) in adults with chronic stroke (age: 60 ± 16 years; months since stroke: 96 ± 85). the secondary purpose was to examine average cycling cadence and ratings of perceived exertion as predictors of change in motor function following the exercise session. methods. twenty-two participants (female = 6, male = 16) completed one 20-min session each of act (mean cadence = 79.5 rpm, vc (mean cadence = 51.5 rpm), and nc on separate days in quasi-counterbalanced fashion). results. main effects of intervention did not differ between act and vc. within-intervention analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) pre- to posttest changes in all outcome measures for act but only in the lower extremity motor coordination test on the non-paretic side for vc. trend analyses revealed a positive relationship between average act cadences and improvements in upper and lower extremity motor function (p < 0.05). a positive relationship between average vc cadences and lower extremity function was also revealed (p < 0.05). conclusion. act and vc produced similar acute improvements in paretic and non-paretic lower extremity motor function whereas changes in upper extremity motor function were more limited. faster cycling cadences seem to be associated with greater acute effects.”
Hornsey, M. J.. (2008). Social Identity Theory and Self-categorization Theory: A Historical Review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass
“The social identity approach (comprising social identity theory and self-categorization theory) is a highly influential theory of group processes and intergroup relations, having redefined how we think about numerous group-mediated phenomena. since its emergence in the early 1970s, the social identity approach has been elaborated, re-interpreted, and occasionally misinterpreted. the goal of this paper is to provide a critical, historical review of how thinking and research within the social identity approach has evolved. the core principles of the theories are reviewed and discussed, and their effect on the field assessed. strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, with an eye to future developments.”
Huddy, L.. (2001). From social to political identity: A critical examination of social identity theory. Political Psychology
“Interest in the concept of identity has grown exponentially within both the humanities and social sciences, but the discussion of identity has had less impact than might be expected on the quantitative study of political behavior in general and on political psychology more specifically. one of the approaches that holds the most promise for political psychologists is social identity theory, as reflected in the thinking of henri tajfel, john turner, and colleagues. although the theory addresses the kinds of problems of interest to political psychologists, it has has limited impact on political psychology because of social identity theorists’ disinclination to examine the sources of social identity in a real world complicated by history and culture. in this review, four key issues are examined that hinder the successful application of social identity theory to political phenomena. these key issues are the existence of identity choice, the subjective meaning of identities, gradations in identity strength, and the considerable stability of many social and political identities.”
Major, B., & O’Brien, L. T.. (2005). The Social Psychology of Stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 393–421.
“This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. we review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. this model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one’s stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one’s social identity and as exceeding one’s coping resources. identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma.”
Somers, M. R.. (1994). The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society, 23(5), 605–649.
“This article argues for reconfiguring the study of identity formation through the concept of narrative. it is motivated by two recent but seemingly unrelated developments in social theory and society. one is the emergence of a wide-spread ‘identity politics’ and a concomitant scholarly focus on the ‘social construction of identity.’ the other is the reconfigured approach to the concept of narrative that researchers from many disciplines have been formulating in recent years. both are important developments not to be overlooked by social scientists and social theorists; both, however, have problems and limitations as they now stand. i argue in this article that the limitations of each potentially can be overcome by bringing the tow thematics together. the key concept i propose to achieve this reconfiguration is that of narrative inquiry.”
Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J.. (2006). Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly
… “… Identity theory and social identity theory * jan e. stets peter j. burke washington state university … by examining the self through the lens of both identity theory and social identity theory , we see how, in combination, they can move us toward a general theory of the self … n”
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C.. (2004). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. In Political Psychology (pp. 276–293). Psychology Press
“The aim of this chapter is to present an outline of a theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory. it begins with a discussion of alternative approaches to intergroup conflict with special attention to the ‘realistic group conflict theory’ (rct). rct’s relative neglect of the processes underlying the development and maintenance of group identity and the possibly autonomous effects upon the in-group and intergroup behavior is responsible for some inconsistencies between the empirical data and the theory in its ‘classical’ form. in this sense, the theoretical orientation to be outlined in this chapter is intended not to replace rct, but to supplement it in some respects that seem essential for an adequate social psychology of intergroup conflict–particularly as the understanding of the psychological aspects of social change cannot be achieved without an appropriate analysis of the social psychology of social conflict. the authors argue that people derive a sense of self-worth and social belongingness from their memberships in groups, and so they are motivated to draw favorable comparisons between their own group and other groups.”
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium. The word is Latin, meaning four ways, and its use for the four subjects has been attributed to Boethius or Cassiodorus in the 6th century. Together, the trivium and the quadrivium comprised the seven liberal arts (based on thinking skills), as distinguished from the practical arts (such as medicine and architecture).
Etymologically, the Latin word trivium means “the place where three roads meet” (tri + via); hence, the subjects of the trivium are the foundation for the quadrivium, the upper division of the medieval education in the liberal arts, which comprised arithmetic (number), geometry (number in space), music (number in time), and astronomy (number in space and time). Educationally, the trivium and the quadrivium imparted to the student the seven liberal arts of classical antiquity.
Grammar teaches the mechanics of language to the student. This is the step where the student “comes to terms,” defining the objects and information perceived by the five senses. Hence, the Law of Identity: a tree is a tree, and not a cat.
Rhetoric is the application of language in order to instruct and to persuade the listener and the reader. It is the knowledge (grammar) now understood (logic) and being transmitted outwards as wisdom (rhetoric).
One can utilise a computer analogy to conceptually explain the Trivium. Per analogiam, input (via input channels such as the senses/sensors, or any other form of information transmission ) refers to grammar, processing to logic (thought & analysis), and output to rhetoric (written words & spoken language).
Sister Miriam Joseph, in The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric (2002), described the trivium as follows:
Grammar is the art of inventing symbols and combining them to express thought; logic is the art of thinking; and rhetoric is the art of communicating thought from one mind to another, the adaptation of language to circumstance.
. . .
Grammar is concerned with the thing as-it-is-symbolized. Logic is concerned with the thing as-it-is-known. Rhetoric is concerned with the thing as-it-is-communicated.
John Ayto wrote in the Dictionary of Word Origins (1990) that study of the trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) was requisite preparation for study of the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy). For the medieval student, the trivium was the curricular beginning of the acquisition of the seven liberal arts; as such, it was the principal undergraduate course of study. The wordtrivial arose from the contrast between the simpler trivium and the more difficult quadrivium.
The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These followed the preparatory work of the trivium, consisting of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the study of philosophy (sometimes called the “liberal art par excellence”) and theology.
These four studies compose the secondary part of the curriculum outlined by Plato in The Republic and are described in the seventh book of that work (in the order Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, Music).  The quadrivium is implicit in early Pythagorean writings and in the De nuptiis of Martianus Capella, although the term quadrivium was not used until Boethius, early in the sixth century. As Proclus wrote:
The Pythagoreans considered all mathematical science to be divided into four parts: one half they marked off as concerned with quantity, the other half with magnitude; and each of these they posited as twofold. A quantity can be considered in regard to its character by itself or in its relation to another quantity, magnitudes as either stationary or in motion. Arithmetic, then, studies quantities as such, music the relations between quantities, geometry magnitude at rest, spherics [astronomy] magnitude inherently moving.
At many medieval universities, this would have been the course leading to the degree of Master of Arts (after the BA). After the MA, the student could enter for bachelor’s degrees of the higher faculties (Theology, Medicine or Law). To this day, some of the postgraduate degree courses lead to the degree of Bachelor (the B.Phil and B.Litt. degrees are examples in the field of philosophy).
The study was eclectic, approaching the philosophical objectives sought by considering it from each aspect of the quadrivium within the general structure demonstrated by Proclus (AD 412–485), namely arithmetic and music on the one hand and geometry and cosmology on the other.
The subject of music within the quadrivium was originally the classical subject of harmonics, in particular the study of the proportions between the musical intervals created by the division of a monochord. A relationship to music as actually practised was not part of this study, but the framework of classical harmonics would substantially influence the content and structure of music theory as practised in both European and Islamic cultures.
In modern applications of the liberal arts as curriculum in colleges or universities, the quadrivium may be considered to be the study of number and its relationship to space or time: arithmetic was pure number, geometry was number in space, music was number in time, and astronomy was number in space and time. Morris Kline classified the four elements of the quadrivium as pure (arithmetic), stationary (geometry), moving (astronomy), and applied (music) number.
“Today’s conflicts between the views that the humanities hold of science and engineering and the views science and engineering hold of the humanities weaken the very core of our culture. their cause is lack of integration in today’s education among subjects that hark back to the medieval trivium and quadrivium. a new trivium is needed to provide every educated person with a basic understanding of the endeavors and instruments that help us address our world and shape a new morality – the humanities, in the noblest sense of the word, to civilize, science to understand nature, and engineering, broadly defined, to encompass the kindred activities that modify nature. integration of these endeavors is urgent. it involves, in turn, an intimate interaction (the ‘biosoma’) of biological organisms, society, and machines – a new quadrivium. no domain can any longer be considered and learned in isolation.”
Etzkowitz, H., Ranga, M., & Dzisah, J.. (2012). Whither the university? The Novum Trivium and the transition from industrial to knowledge society. Social Science Information
“Beyond the bologna process key objective of achieving a common structure of the european tertiary educational format is the fundamental issue of the changing content of higher education. the highly specialized curricula of the industrial society no longer fully meet the needs of an emerging knowledge society that requires citizens with entrepreneurial and inter-cultural capabilities to innovate and respond to change in an increasingly inter-connected world. in this article we propose an innovative approach to undergraduate education called the novum trivium, comprised of (i) academic specialization, (ii) innovation and entrepreneurship, and (iii) a language and culture in addition to one’s own, as a new higher-education paradigm for the knowledge society. this vision of undergraduate education aims to contribute to the realization of the bologna process objective of better integrating education, research and innovation. the novum trivium brings together three diverse, yet complementary, educational skill sets, in a modern version of the tripos degree introduced by cambridge university in the 17th century as an honours degree in mathematics that eventually became a format that encompassed three closely related disciplines such as politics, philosophy and economics. the novum trivium is also inspired by the medieval trivium of grammar, rhetoric and dialectics (logic), the essential elements of education for all.”