Vetter, R. J., Becker, T. A., Williams, J. C., & Kipke, D. R.. (2003). The use of ALGEL/spl reg/ as an artificial dura for chronic cortical implant neuroprosthetics. In First International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, 2003. Conference Proceedings.
“This paper presents an inductive power link for remote powering of a wireless cortical implant. the link includes a class-e power amplifier, a gate driver, an inductive link, and an integrated rectifier. the coils of the inductive link are designed and optimized for remote powering from a distance of 10 mm (scalp thickness). the power amplifier is designed in order to allow closed-loop control of the power delivered to the implant, by controlling the supply voltage. moreover, a gate driver is added to the system to drive the power amplifier and to characterize the gate losses. a new packaging topology is proposed in order to position the implant inside a hole in the cranial bone, without occupying a large area, but still obtaining a short distance between the remote powering coils. the package is fabricated by using biocompatible materials such as pdms and parylene-c. the power efficiency of the remote powering link is characterized for a wide range of load power (1-20 mw) delivered from the rectifier and is measured to be 24.6% at nominal load of 10 mw.”
Björninen, T., Moradi, E., Sydänheimo, L., Carmena, J. M., Rabaey, J. M., & Ukkonen, L.. (2013). Electromagnetic modelling and measurement of antennas for wireless brain-machine interface systems. In 2013 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications, IMWS-BIO 2013 – Proceedings
Kok, C. L., Siek, L., Gao, F., Zheng, Y., & Lim, W. M.. (2012). An ultra-compact green bio-regulator dedicated for brain cortical implant using a dynamic PSR enhancement technique. In Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS
Kosta, P., Paknahad, J., Rodriguez, E. S. G., Loizos, K., Roy, A., Talbot, N., … Lazzi, G.. (2018). Electromagnetic Safety Assessment of a Cortical Implant for Vision Restoration. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology
“A cortical visual prosthetic system bypasses the components of the visual pathway, which may be damaged due to injury or disease, by directly stimulating the visual cortex; therefore, cortical visual prostheses promise the capability of restoring a form of vision to patients who cannot benefit from other types of visual neural stimulators. a high data rate, multielectrode, implantable device, such as that utilized for a cortical visual prosthesis, requires continuous power provided by an external telemetry unit, which is nonnegligible, given the number of stimulating electrodes and the stimulation rate necessary to avoid flickering visual percepts. this aspect motivates the need to develop models and methods that aid the development of such devices by assessing their compliance with electromagnetic safety standards. in this paper, the electromagnetic safety assessment of a cortical visual prosthetic system is considered, and the solutions employed to numerically treat the computational complexities associated with it are discussed. the specifics of the implementation of an actual visual cortical implant are discussed, and the parameters of such an implant are used as a test case to determine whether ieee and icnirp electromagnetic standards are met in what can be considered a typical embodiment of the prosthesis. results show that, for the considered implant, such a system meets ieee and icnirp safety standards, thus enabling further development of similar neurorehabilitative devices.”
Parthasarathy, K. S., Cheng, Y. C. N., McAllister, J. P., Shen, Y., Li, J., Deren, K., … Auner, G. W.. (2007). Biocompatibilities of sapphire and borosilicate glass as cortical neuroprostheses. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Moradi, E., Björninen, T., Sydänheimo, L., Carmena, J. M., Rabaey, J. M., & Ukkonen, L.. (2013). Measurement of wireless link for brain-machine interface systems using human-head equivalent liquid. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Mark, M., Björninen, T., Ukkonen, L., Sydänheimo, L., & Rabaey, J. M.. (2011). SAR reduction and link optimization for mm-size remotely powered wireless implants using segmented loop antennas. In 2011 IEEE Radio and Wireless Week, RWW 2011 – 2011 IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems, BioWireleSS 2011
Lewis, P. M., Ackland, H. M., Lowery, A. J., & Rosenfeld, J. V.. (2015). Restoration of vision in blind individuals using bionic devices: A review with a focus on cortical visual prostheses. Brain Research
“The field of neurobionics offers hope to patients with sensory and motor impairment. blindness is a common cause of major sensory loss, with an estimated 39 million people worldwide suffering from total blindness in 2010. potential treatment options include bionic devices employing electrical stimulation of the visual pathways. retinal stimulation can restore limited visual perception to patients with retinitis pigmentosa, however loss of retinal ganglion cells precludes this approach. the optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex provide alternative stimulation targets, with several research groups actively pursuing a cortically-based device capable of driving several hundred stimulating electrodes. while great progress has been made since the earliest works of brindley and dobelle in the 1960s and 1970s, significant clinical, surgical, psychophysical, neurophysiological, and engineering challenges remain to be overcome before a commercially-available cortical implant will be realized. selection of candidate implant recipients will require assessment of their general, psychological and mental health, and likely responses to visual cortex stimulation. implant functionality, longevity and safety may be enhanced by careful electrode insertion, optimization of electrical stimulation parameters and modification of immune responses to minimize or prevent the host response to the implanted electrodes. psychophysical assessment will include mapping the positions of potentially several hundred phosphenes, which may require repetition if electrode performance deteriorates over time. therefore, techniques for rapid psychophysical assessment are required, as are methods for objectively assessing the quality of life improvements obtained from the implant. these measures must take into account individual differences in image processing, phosphene distribution and rehabilitation programs that may be required to optimize implant functionality. in this review, we detail these and other challenges facing developers of cortical visual prostheses in addition to briefly outlining the epidemiology of blindness, and the history of cortical electrical stimulation in the context of visual prosthetics.”
Shetliffe, M. A., Kamboh, A. M., Mason, A., & Oweiss, K. G.. (2007). Impact of lossy compression on neural response characteristics extracted from high-density intra-cortical implant data. In Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology – Proceedings
“In this paper, we describe the current version of the artificial retina prosthesis and cortical implant that we are developing. this research project will require significant advances in a variety of disciplines. we have assembled a multidisciplinary team of researchers in ophthalmology, neurosurgery, computer networking, vlsi, and sensors to develop the novel solutions needed to make artificial vision for the visually-impaired a reality. this paper describes the novel approach that we have adopted to providing a complete system for restoring vision to visually-impaired persons – from the signals generated by an external camera to an array of sensors that electrically stimulate the retina via a wireless interface.”
Luo, Y., Winstead, C., & Chiang, P.. (2012). 125Mbps ultra-wideband system evaluation for cortical implant devices. In Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS
“This paper evaluates the performance of a 125mbps impulse ratio ultra-wideband (ir-uwb) system for cortical implant devices by using low-q inductive coil link operating in the near-field domain. we examine design tradeoffs between transmitted signal amplitude, reliability, noise and clock jitter. the ir-uwb system is modeled using measured parameters from a reported uwb transceiver implemented in 90nm-cmos technology. non-optimized inductive coupling coils with low-q value for near-field data transmission are modeled in order to build a full channel from the transmitter (tx) to the receiver (rx). on-off keying (ook) modulation is used together with a low-complexity convolutional error correcting code. the simulation results show that even though the low-q coils decrease the amplitude of the received pulses, the uwb system can still achieve acceptable performance when error correction is used. these results predict that uwb is a good candidate for delivering high data rates in cortical implant devices.”
De Ridder, D., & Vanneste, S.. (2014). Targeting the parahippocampal area by auditory cortex stimulation in tinnitus. Brain Stimulation
“Background: the final common pathway in tinnitus generation is considered to be synchronized auditory oscillatory hyperactivity. intracranial auditory cortex stimulation (iacs) via implanted electrodes has been developed to treat severe cases of intractable tinnitus targeting this final common pathway, in the hope of being a panacea for tinnitus. however, not everybody responds to this treatment. objective: the electrical brain activity and functional connectivity at rest might determine who is going to respond or not to iacs and might shed light on the pathophysiology of auditory phantom sound generation. method: the resting state electrical brain activity of 5 patients who responded and 5 patients who did not respond to auditory cortex implantation are compared using source localized spectral activity (z-score of log transformed current density) and lagged phase synchronization. results: sloreta source localization reveals significant differences between responders vs nonresponders for beta3 in left posterior parahippocampal, hippocampal and amygdala area extending into left insula. gamma band differences exist in the posterior parahippocampal areas and ba10. functional connectivity between the auditory cortex and the hippocampal area is increased for beta2, delta and theta2 in responders, as well as between the parahippocampal area and auditory cortex for beta3. conclusion: the resting state functional connectivity and activity between the auditory cortex and parahippocampus might determine whether a tinnitus patient will respond to a cortical implant. the auditory cortex may only be a functional entrance into a larger parahippocampal based tinnitus network.”
Khan, M. W. A., Bjorninen, T., Sydanheimo, L., & Ukkonen, L.. (2016). Characterization of Two-Turns External Loop Antenna With Magnetic Core for Efficient Wireless Powering of Cortical Implants. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Yan, X., Zhang, X., Chi, W., Ai, H., & Wu, L.. (2015). Comparing the influence of crestal cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone in posterior maxilla bi-cortical dental implantation: A three-dimensional finite element analysis. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
“OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to compare the influence of alveolar ridge cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone in sinus areabi-cortical dental implantation by means of 3d finite element analysis.nmaterials and methods: three-dimensional finite element (fe) models in a posterior maxillary region with sinus membrane and the same height of alveolar ridge of 10 mm were generated according to the anatomical data of the sinus area. they were either with fixed thickness of crestal cortical bone and variable thickness of sinus floor cortical bone or vice versa. ten models were assumed to be under immediate loading or conventional loading. the standard implant model based on the nobel biocare implant system was created via computer-aided design software. all materials were assumed to be isotropic and linearly elastic. an inclined force of 129 n was applied.nresults: von mises stress mainly concentrated on the surface of crestal cortical bone around the implant neck. for all the models, both the axial and buccolingual resonance frequencies of conventional loading were higher than those of immediate loading; however, the difference is less than 5%.nconclusion: the results showed that bi-cortical implant in sinus area increased the stability of the implant, especially for immediately loading implantation. the thickness of both crestal cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone influenced implant micromotion and stress distribution; however, crestal cortical bone may be more important than sinus floor cortical bone.”
Hoenecke, H. R., Tibor, L. M., Elias, D. W., Flores-Hernandez, C., Steinvurzel, J. N., & D’Lima, D. D.. (2012). A quantitative three-dimensional templating method for shoulder arthroplasty: Biomechanical validation in cadavers. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Ferguson, S., & Ferguson, S. D.. (1986). High resolution vision prosthesis systems: Research after 15 years. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness
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“Presents new design criteria and suggests alternative theoretical approaches to high resolution vision prosthesis systems, using r. m. fish’s (see pa, vol 55:5179) work as a point of departure. tactile substitution systems are proposed in preference to cortical implant work, and electrocutaneous transfer is offered in preference to vibrotactile techniques, which are seen as the major reason for the limited resolution achieved by existing approaches. (24 ref) (psyclit database copyright 1987 american psychological assn, all rights reserved)”
Khan, M. W. A., Bjorninen, T., Sydanheimo, L., & Ukkonen, L.. (2015). Two-turns antenna and magnetic materials for effective powering of mm-size implant in wireless brain-machine interface system. In 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications, IMWS-BIO 2015 – Proceedings
“Recent advances in arrays of microelectrodes open the door to both better understanding of the way the brain works and to the restoration of damaged perceptive and motor functions. in the case of sensorial inputs, direct multi-channel interfacing with the brain for neuro-stimulation requires a computational layer capable of handling the translation from external stimuli into appropriate trains of spikes. the work here presented aims to provide automated and reconfigurable transformation of visual inputs into addresses of microelectrodes in a cortical implant for the blind. the development of neuroprostheses such as this one will contribute to reveal the neural language of the brain for the representation of perceptions, and offers a hope to persons with deep visual impairments. our system serves as a highly flexible test-bench for almost any kind of retina model, and allows the validation of these models against multi-electrode recordings from experiments with biological retinas. the current version is a pc-based platform, and a compact stand-alone device is under development for the autonomy and portability required in chronic implants. this tool is useful for psychologists, neurophysiologists, and neural engineers as it offers a way to deal with the complexity of multi-channel electrical interfaces for the brain.”
José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado (August 8, 1915 – September 15, 2011) was a Spanish professor of physiology at Yale University, famed for his research on mind control through electrical stimulation of the brain.
Delgrado used permanent brain implants to control behaviour. Later he utilised non-inversive methods.
José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado (1969). Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society. Harper and Row. ISBN 978-0-06-090208-7.
Delgado JM (1977–1978). “Instrumentation, working hypotheses, and clinical aspects of neurostimulation”. Applied Neurophysiology. 40 (2–4): 88–110.
Delgado, Jose M.; et al. Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and recording in Completely Free Patients, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol 147(4), 1968, 329-340.
Delgado, José M.R. (1964). Free Behavior and Brain Stimulation. International Review of Neurobiology. 6. pp. 349–449. doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(08)60773-4.
Abstract - Free behaviour and brain stimulation (1964)
Of the methods used to investigate the neurophysiological basis of behavior, perhaps the most direct and dramatic is electrical stimulation of the brain. Direct stimulation of the brain is considered a crude method for the exploration of cerebral functions, and the understanding of the results is limited. The chapter describes methodology for cinemanalysis, telerecording, and telestimulation to study free behavior during brain stimulation. It also demonstrates that spontaneous activities are recorded, identified and quantified, allowing the systematic study of free and evoked behavior on both individual and social levels. The chapter also discusses the types and significance of behavior evoked by brain stimulation in unrestrained subjects and presents a theory of fragmental organization of behavior. Brain stimulation evokes (1) stereotyped tonic or phasic activity without any emotional disturbance, (2) driving activity to reach an objective with a motor performance adapted to the relations between subject and purpose, (3) changes in behavioral tuning that are detected in isolated animals because of the lack of manifestations, but may modify decisively the character of response to normal stimuli, (4) inhibition of spontaneous or evoked behavior, and (5) abnormal effects such as tremor or seizures. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0074774208607734
Rodríguez Delgado’s research interests centered on the use of electrical signals to evoke responses in the brain. His earliest work was with cats, but he later did experiments with monkeys and humans, including psychiatric patients.
Much of Rodríguez Delgado’s work was with an invention he called a stimoceiver, a radio which joined a stimulator of brain waves with a receiver which monitored E.E.G. waves and sent them back on separate radio channels. Some of these stimoceivers were as small as half-dollars. This allowed the subject of the experiment full freedom of movement while allowing the experimenter to control the experiment. This was a great improvement from his early equipment which included visual disturbance in those whose wires ran from the brain to bulky equipment that both recorded data and delivered the desired electrical charges to the brain. This early equipment, while not allowing for a free range of movement, was also the cause of infection in many subjects.
The stimoceiver could be used to stimulate emotions and control behavior. According to Rodríguez Delgado, “Radio Stimulation of different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep, thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation, colored visions, and other responses.” Rodríguez Delgado stated that “brain transmitters can remain in a person’s head for life. The energy to activate the brain transmitter is transmitted by way of radio frequencies.”
Using the stimoceiver, Rodríguez Delgado found that he could not only elicit emotions, but he could also elicit specific physical reactions. These specific physical reactions, such as the movement of a limb or the clenching of a fist, were achieved when Rodríguez Delgado stimulated the motor cortex. A human whose implants were stimulated to produce a reaction were unable to resist the reaction and so one patient said “I guess, doctor, that your electricity is stronger than my will”. Some consider one of Rodríguez Delgado‘s most promising finds is that of an area called the septum within the limbic region. This area, when stimulated by Rodríguez Delgado, produced feelings of strong euphoria. These euphoric feelings were sometimes strong enough to overcome physical pain and depression.
Rodríguez Delgado created many inventions and was called a “technological wizard” by one of his Yale colleagues. Other than the stimoceiver, Rodríguez Delgado also created a “chemitrode” which was an implantable device that released controlled amounts of a drug into specific brain areas. Rodríguez Delgado also invented an early version of what is now a cardiac pacemaker.
In Rhode Island, Rodríguez Delgado did some work at what is now a closed mental hospital. He chose patients who were “desperately ill patients whose disorders had resisted all previous treatments” and implanted electrodes in about 25 of them. Most of these patients were either schizophrenics or epileptics. To determine the best placement of electrodes within the human patients, Delgado initially looked to the work of Wilder Penfield, who studied epileptics’ brains in the 1930s, as well as earlier animal experiments, and studies of brain-damaged people.
The most famous example of the stimoceiver in action occurred at a Córdoba bull breeding ranch. Rodríguez Delgado stepped into the ring with a bull which had had a stimoceiver implanted within its brain. The bull charged Delgado, who pressed a remote control button which caused the bull to stop its charge. Always one for theatrics, he taped this stunt and it can be seen today. The region of the brain Rodríguez Delgado stimulated when he pressed the hand-held transmitter was the caudate nucleus. This region was chosen to be stimulated because the caudate nucleus is involved in controlling voluntary movements. Rodríguez Delgado claimed that the stimulus caused the bull to lose its aggressive instinct.
Although the bull incident was widely mentioned in the popular media, Rodríguez Delgado believed that his experiment with a female chimpanzee named Paddy was more significant. Paddy was fitted with a stimoceiver linked to a computer that detected the brain signal called a spindle which was emitted by her part of the brain called the amygdala. When the spindle was recognized, the stimoceiver sent a signal to the central gray area of Paddy’s brain, producing an ‘aversive reaction’. In this case, the aversive reaction was an unpleasant or painful feeling. The result of the aversive reaction to the stimulus was a negative feedback to the brain. Within hours her brain was producing fewer spindles as a result of the negative feedback. As a result, Paddy became “quieter, less attentive and less motivated during behavioral testing”. Although Paddy’s reaction was not exactly ideal, Rodríguez Delgado hypothesized that the method used on Paddy could be used on others to stop panic attacks, seizures, and other disorders controlled by certain signals within the brain. 
José Rodríguez Delgado authored 134 scientific publications within two decades (1950-1970) on electrical stimulation on cats, monkeys and patients – psychotic and non-psychotic. In 1963, New York Times featured his experiments on their front page. Rodríguez Delgado had implanted a stimoceiver in the caudate nucleus of a fighting bull. He could stop the animal mid-way that would come running towards a waving red flag.
He was invited to write his book Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilised Society as the forty-first volume in a series entitled World Perspectives edited by Ruth Nanda Anshen. In it Rodríguez Delgado has discussed how we have managed to tame and civilize our surrounding nature, arguing that now it was time to civilize our inner being. The book has been a centre of controversy since its release. The tone of the book was challenging and the philosophical speculations went beyond the data. Its intent was to encourage less cruelty, and a more benevolent, happier, better man, however it clashed religious sentiments.
José Rodríguez Delgado continued to publish his research and philosophical ideas through articles and books for the next quarter century. He in all wrote over 500 articles and six books. His final book in 1989, was named Happiness and had 14 editions.
Delgado later learned he could duplicate the results he got with the stimoceiver without any implants at all, using only specific types of electromagnetic radiation interacting with the brain. He lamented he didn’t have access to the technology when Franco was in power, as it would have allowed him to control the dictator at a distance.
“A brief study of the generic features of science and of man’s patterns of behaviour shows that there is scope for the establishment of a science in the field of human values. an essential premise to the argument is that there can be an absolute form of contingence without absolute determination of the actual course of events, the law of nature providing alternative consequences depending on the subject’s choice of action.”
Blackwell, B.. (2012). Jose Manuel Rodriguez Delgado. Neuropsychopharmacology
“Presents an obituary of jose manuel rodriguez delgado (1915-2011). jose enrolled in madrid medical school in 1933 to study both medicine and physiology. in 1936, the spanish civil war erupted, his mentor juan negri fled the country and jose joined the republican side as a medical corpsman. from 1942 to 1950, he began research in neurophysiology on selective brain ablation and electrical stimulation in animals, published 14 articles and won several prizes. in 1950, delgado won a scholarship to the yale university in the department of physiology under the direction of john fulton whose pioneer work on pre-frontal lobotomy in chimpanzees encouraged the portuguese psychiatrist egas moniz to perform the operation in schizophrenic patients, for which he received the noble prize in 1949. delgado positioned himself between growing disapproval of mutilating brain surgery and his own belief that electrical stimulation of specific brain areas was scientifically superior to oral administration of drugs whose effects were mitigated by liver metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, and uncertain distribution. in the last years of his life, jose and his wife returned to america and lived in san diego where he died unheralded. unjustly treated and harshly judged by segments of the public and his profession, jose delgado’s ground breaking research, benevolent philosophy, and memory deserve better recognition. his career trajectory may provide budding scientists with a cautionary note about the pitfalls of mingling science with philosophy. (psycinfo database record (c) 2016 apa, all rights reserved)”
Delgado-García, J. M.. (2000). Why move the eyes if we can move the head?. Brain Research Bulletin
“To see while moving is a very basic and integrative sensorimotor function in vertebrates. to maintain visual acuity, the oculomotor system provides efficient compensatory eye movements for head and visual field displacements. other types of eye movement allow the selection of new visual targets and binocular vision and stereopsis. motor and premotor neuronal circuits involved in the genesis and control of eye movements are briefly described. the peculiar properties and robust biomechanics of the oculomotor system have allowed it to survive almost unchanged through vertebrate evolution. (c) 2000 elsevier science inc.”
Delgado-García, J. M.. (2001). Estructura y función del cerebelo. Revista de Neurologia
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“INTRODUCTION the cerebellum is a neural structure, of a crystalline like organization, present in all vertebrates. its progressive growth from fishes to mammals, and particularly in primates, takes place following the repetition of a primitive cellular plan and connectivity. development the cerebellum is organized in folia located one behind the other in the rostrocaudal axis, and placed transversally on the brain stem. the cerebellar cortex has five types of neuron: purkinje, stellate, basket, golgi and granule cells. apart from granule cells, the other cell types are inhibitory in nature. afferent fibers to the cerebellar cortex are of two types (mossy and climbing) and carry information from somatosensory, vestibular, acoustic and visual origins, as well as from the cerebral cortex and other brain stem and spinal motor centers. the only neural output from the cerebellar cortex is represented by purkinje axons that synapse on the underlying deep nuclei. cerebellar nuclei send their axons towards many brain stem centers and, by thalamic relay nuclei, act on different cortical areas. functionally, the cerebellum seems to be organized in small modules, similar in structure, but different in the origin and end of their afferent and efferent fibers. the cerebellum is involved in the coordination or integration of motor and cognitive processes. conclusion although cerebellar lesion does not produce severe motor paralysis, loss of sensory inputs or definite deficits in cognitive functions, its certainly affects motor performance and specific perceptive and cognitive phenomena.”
Wilder, J.. (2018). Physical Control of the Mind. Toward a Psychocivilized Society. American Journal of Psychotherapy
“Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/jos%c3%a9_manuel_rodriguez_delgado josé manuel rodriguez delgado from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia jump to: navigation, search ‘jose delgado’ redirects here. for the comic book character, see gangbuster. text document with red question mark.svg tthis article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (may 2010) dr. josé manuel rodriguez delgado (born august 8, 1915) is a spanish professor of physiology at yale university, famed for his research into mind control through electrical stimulation of regions in the brain. contents [hide] * 1 biography * 2 research * 3 references * 4 further reading * 5 external links  biography delgado was born in ronda, spain in 1915. he received a doctor of medicine degree from the university of madrid just before the outbreak of the spanish civil war, in which he served as a medical corpsman on the republican side. after the war he had to repeat his m.d. degree, and then took a ph.d. at the cajal institute in madrid. ”
Molaee-Ardekani, B., Márquez-Ruiz, J., Merlet, I., Leal-Campanario, R., Gruart, A., Sánchez-Campusano, R., … Wendling, F.. (2013). Effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on cortical activity: A computational modeling study. Brain Stimulation
“Of the methods used to investigate the neurophysiological basis of behavior, perhaps the most direct and dramatic is electrical stimulation of the brain. direct stimulation of the brain is considered a crude method for the exploration of cerebral functions, and the understanding of the results is limited. the chapter describes methodology for cinemanalysis, telerecording, and telestimulation to study free behavior during brain stimulation. it also demonstrates that spontaneous activities are recorded, identified and quantified, allowing the systematic study of free and evoked behavior on both individual and social levels. the chapter also discusses the types and significance of behavior evoked by brain stimulation in unrestrained subjects and presents a theory of fragmental organization of behavior. brain stimulation evokes (1) stereotyped tonic or phasic activity without any emotional disturbance, (2) driving activity to reach an objective with a motor performance adapted to the relations between subject and purpose, (3) changes in behavioral tuning that are detected in isolated animals because of the lack of manifestations, but may modify decisively the character of response to normal stimuli, (4) inhibition of spontaneous or evoked behavior, and (5) abnormal effects such as tremor or seizures.”
Delgado, J. M. R., Hamlin, H., & Chapman, W. P.. (1952). Technique of Intracranial Electrode Implacement for Recording and Stimulation and its Possible Therapeutic Value in Psychotic Patients. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
“THe method for the permanent placement of multiple lead electrodes in the brain of animals was developed by one of us four years ago. during this time, its use in the conscious cat and monkey has revealed that motor effects and changes in behavior can be elicited by electrical stimulation of various parts of the brain; the placement of the electrode has not been associated with infection and during several months time has caused only slight gliosis formation about the needle electrode. with this experience in animals and in the hope that it might be helpful in establishing a more physiological basis for psychosurgical procedures, we have modified this technique for use in psychotic patients.”
Delgado-García, J. M., & Gruart, A.. (2005). Firing activities of identified posterior interpositus nucleus neurons during associative learning in behaving cats. Brain Research Reviews
Márquez-Ruiz, J., Ammann, C., Leal-Campanario, R., Ruffini, G., Gruart, A., & Delgado-García, J. M.. (2016). Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits. Scientific Reports
“The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for closing the loop” is now becoming a major research theme. while intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. in the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tacs) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. more specifically, we determined the effects of tacs on sensory local field potentials (lfps) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. we demonstrated that tacs of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm.”