Structural violence

Structural violence is a term commonly ascribed to Johan Galtung, which he introduced in the article “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research” (1969). It refers to a form of violence wherein some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs. Institutionalized adultism, ageism, classism, elitism, ethnocentrism, nationalism, speciesism, racism, and sexism are some examples of structural violence as proposed by Galtung.[2][3] According to Galtung, rather than conveying a physical image, structural violence is an “avoidable impairment of fundamental human needs”.[4] As it is avoidable, structural violence is a high cause of premature death and unnecessary disability. Because structural violence affects people differently in various social structures, it is very closely linked to social injustice.[5] Structural violence and direct violence are said to be highly interdependent, including family violence, gender violence, hate crimes, racial violence, police violence, state violence, terrorism, and war.

Farmer, P.. (2004). An Anthropology of Structural Violence. Current Anthropology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/382250
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Farmer, P. E., Nizeye, B., Stulac, S., & Keshavjee, S.. (2006). Structural violence and clinical medicine. PLoS Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030449
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Galtung, J.. (1969). Violence, Peace, and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/002234336900600301
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Farmer, P.. (2015). On Suffering and Structural Violence : A View from Below. Daedalus

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1353/rac.0.0025
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Kelly, B. D.. (2005). Structural violence and schizophrenia. Social Science and Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.12.020
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Weigert, K. M.. (2010). Structural Violence. In Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/B978-012373985-8.00169-0
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Gupta, A.. (2013). Structural violence and politics. Economy and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/03085147.2013.843914
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Ho, K.. (2007). Structural Violence as a Human Rights Violation. Essex Human Rights Review
Sokoloff, N. J., & Dupont, I.. (2005). Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender: Challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities. Violence Against Women

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1077801204271476
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Kumar, S.. (2015). Red tape: bureaucracy, structural violence, and poverty in India. The Journal of Peasant Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2015.1006456
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Ferguson, C. J., Rueda, S. M., Cruz, A. M., Ferguson, D. E., Fritz, S., & Smith, S. M.. (2008). Violent video games and aggression: Causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation?. Criminal Justice and Behavior

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0093854807311719
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