The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination. The hoax, which was shown to be plagiarized from several earlier sources, some not antisemitic in nature, was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. According to the claims made by some of its publishers, the Protocols are the minutes of a late 19th-century meeting where Jewish leaders discussed their goal of global Jewish hegemony by subverting the morals of Gentiles, and by controlling the press and the world’s economies.
Henry Ford funded printing of 500,000 copies that were distributed throughout the United States in the 1920s. The Nazis sometimes used the Protocols as propaganda against Jews; it was assigned by some German teachers, as if factual, to be read by German schoolchildren after the Nazis came to power in 1933, despite having been exposed as fraudulent by The Times of London in 1921. It is still widely available today in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and continues to be presented by some proponents as a genuine document.
The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945, Nora Levin states that “Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews”:
Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands, the US, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation.
Marsden, V. E.. (1922). The protocols of the meeting of the learned elders of zion. New York
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“Under a direct current electric field, dictyostelium cells exhibit migration towards the cathode. to determine the input–output relationship of the cell’s galvanotactic response, we developed an experimental instrument in which electric signals applied to the cells are highly reproducible and the motile response are analyzed quantitatively. with no electric field, the cells moved randomly in all directions. upon applying an electric field, cell migration speeds became about 1.3 times faster than those in the absence of an electric field. such kinetic effects of electric fields on the migration were observed for cells stimulated between 0.25 and 10 v/cm of the field strength. the directions of cell migrations were biased toward the cathode in a positive manner with field strength, showing galvanotactic response in a dose-dependent manner. quantitative analysis of the relationship between field strengths and directional movements revealed that the biased movements of the cells depend on the square of electric field strength, which can be described by one simple phenomenological equation. the threshold strength for the galvanotaxis was between 0.25 and 1 v/cm. galvanotactic efficiency reached to half-maximum at 2.6 v/cm, which corresponds to an approximate 8 mv voltage difference between the cathode and anode direction of 10 μm wide, round cells. based on these results, possible mechanisms of galvanotaxis in dictyostelium cells were discussed. this development of experimental system, together with its good microscopic accessibility for intracellular signaling molecules, makes dictyostelium cells attractive as a model organism for elucidating stochastic processes in the signaling systems responsible for cell motility and its regulations.”
Bali, R. N.. (2012). The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Turkey. In The Global Impact of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Century-Old Myth
“Although most leading nazis realized that the protocols of the elders of zion was a spurious document, they found it useful in promoting belief in the international jewish conspiracy of which they were already convinced. authorship and other details were irrelevant, they averred, if the book expressed ‘inner truth.’”
Webman, E.. (2012). The global impact of the protocols of the elders of zion: A century-old myth. The Global Impact of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Century-Old Myth
“‘This volume … comprises a compilation of papers presented at a conference held in october 2004 at tel aviv university’–introduction. introduction esther webman part i: russia and eastern europe 1. toward the prehistory of the protocols lev aronov, henryk baran and dmitri zubarev 2. th enemy of humanity yohanan petrovsky-shtern 3. the re-emergence of the protocols of the elders of zion beate kosmala part ii: western europe 4. the protocols of the elders of zion in court michael hagemeister 5. why the jews? wolfram meyer zu uptrup 6. the protocols of the elders of zion on the interne juliane wetzel part iii: the muslim and arab world 7. adoption of the protocols in the arab discourse on the arab-israeli conflict, zionism and the jews esther webman 8. the protocols of the elders of zion in iranian politica and cultural discourse orly r. rahimiyan 9. the protocols of the elders of zion in turkey rifat n. bali 10. rationalizing the hidden hand goetz nordbruc part iv: the us 10. philosemites embracing the protocols? yaakov ariel part v: south america 11. hugo wast and the protocols of the elders of zion in argentina graciela ben-dror 12. the case of the brazilian revisionist s.e. castan luiz nazario 13. political dissemination of the judeo-masonic conspiracy theory and the outbreak of la violencia in columbia, 1920-1946 thomas j. williford part vi: africa and asia 14. the protocols of the elders of zion in japan david g. goodman 15. the protocols of the elders of zion in south africa milton shain.”
Greene, D.. (2007). The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Shofar
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“Hitler is portrayed as interested in the protocols only eatly in the 1920s, and eisner uses a soft hand in guiding his reader through the holocaust era – including one 1945 incident in which an american intelligence officer finds joseph goebbels’ diary, which contained references to the protocols (p. 110). eisner himself becomes a character in the novel, traveling to archives and libraries to research the protocols and even confronting college students as they protest against some vague form of jewish influence.”