Framing

In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality. Framing involves social construction of a social phenomenon – by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, or other actors and organizations. Recent findings in the domain of embodied cognition and conceptual metaphor theory are important theoretical frameworks in this context.

Benford, R. D., & Snow, D. A.. (2000). Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.611
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Chong, D., & Druckman, J. N.. (2007). Framing Theory. Annual Review of Political Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/sia.3423
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Scheufele, D. A.. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x
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Entman, R. M.. (1993). Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x
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Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D.. (1986). Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions. The Journal of Business

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1086/296365
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Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D.. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1126/science.7455683
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Levin, I. P., Schneider, S. L., & Gaeth, G. J.. (1998). All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1006/obhd.1998.2804
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Scheufele, D. A., & Tewksbury, D.. (2007). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models. Journal of Communication

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.0021-9916.2007.00326.x
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Levin, I. P., Gaeth, G. J., Schreiber, J., & Lauriola, M.. (2002). A new look at framing effects: Distribution of effect sizes, individual differences, and independence of types of effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1006/obhd.2001.2983
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Kühberger, A.. (1998). The Influence of Framing on Risky Decisions: A Meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1006/obhd.1998.2781
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Snow, D. A., & Benford, R. D.. (2002). Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization. International Social Movement Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00425-012-1590-5
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Halsnæs, K., Shukla, P., Ahuja, D., Akumu, G., Beale, R., Edmonds, J., … J. Zou. (2007). Framing issues. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s10728-007-0063-7
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Nisbet, M., & Mooney, C.. (2007). Framing science. Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/cncy.20155
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Nelson, T. E., Oxley, Z. M., & Clawson, R. A.. (1997). Toward a psychology of framing effects. Political Behavior

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1023/A:1024834831093
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Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G. M.. (1993). Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Political Communication

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/10584609.1993.9962963
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Hallahan, K.. (1999). Seven Models of Framing: Implications for Public Relations. Journal of Public Relations Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1207/s1532754xjprr1103_02
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