Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, nanogels and capsules for integrated multifunctional intelligent systems (Review, 2010)

In this review we provide an analysis of recent literature reports on the synthesis and applications of stimuli-responsive polymeric and hybrid nanostructured particles in a range of sizes from nanometers to a few micrometers: nano- and microgels, core–shell structures, polymerosomes, block-copolymer micelles, and more complex architectures. The review consists of two major parts: synthesis and applications of nanoparticles in colloidal dispersions, thin films, delivery devices and sensors. We also broadly discuss potential directions for further developments of this research area.

Motornov, M., Roiter, Y., Tokarev, I., & Minko, S.. (2010). Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, nanogels and capsules for integrated multifunctional intelligent systems. Progress in Polymer Science, 35(1–2), 174–211.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.10.004
DOI URL
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Buwalda, S. J., Boere, K. W. M., Dijkstra, P. J., Feijen, J., Vermonden, T., & Hennink, W. E.. (2014). Hydrogels in a historical perspective: From simple networks to smart materials. Journal of Controlled Release, 190, 254–273.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.03.052
DOI URL
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See also:
Fluorescent probe-encapsulated smart nanohydrogel to enhance sensitivity toward hydrogen peroxide in living cells (Publication Date, Feb. 2023)
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0143720822008609

  • Advances in the development of cyclodextrin-based nanogels/microgels for biomedical applications: Drug delivery and beyond 2022, Carbohydrate Polymers
  • Formation of ultrathin scarf-like micelles, ultrathin disk-like micelles and spherical micelles by self-assembly of polyurethane diblock copolymers 2022, Journal of Molecular Liquids
  • Inorganic/organic hybrid nanoparticles synthesized in a two-step radiation-driven process 2022, Radiation Physics and Chemistry
  • The influence of the functional end groups on the properties of polylactide-based materials 2022, Progress in Polymer Science
  • How molecular interactions tune the characteristic time of nanocomposite colloidal sensors 2022, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body. It is a subfield of psychosomatic medicine. PNI takes an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating psychology, neuroscience, immunology, physiology, genetics, pharmacology, molecular biology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, endocrinology, and rheumatology.

The main interests of PNI are the interactions between the nervous and immune systems and the relationships between mental processes and health. PNI studies, among other things, the physiological functioning of the neuroimmune system in health and disease; disorders of the neuroimmune system (autoimmune diseases; hypersensitivities; immune deficiency); and the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the neuroimmune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo.

It is now clear that the cellular and molecular processes that make up our ‘immune system’ are also crucial to normal brain development and play a role in the pathoaetiology of many mental and physical disorders.


Troyer, E. A., Kohn, J. N., & Hong, S.. (2020). Are we facing a crashing wave of neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19? Neuropsychiatric symptoms and potential immunologic mechanisms. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 34–39.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.027
DOI URL
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Hamilton-West, K.. (2011). Psychobiological Processes in Health and Illness. Psychobiological Processes in Health and Illness. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4135/9781446251324
DOI URL
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Mravec, B., Tibensky, M., & Horvathova, L.. (2020). Stress and cancer. Part II: Therapeutic implications for oncology. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 346, 577312.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577312
DOI URL
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Pahlevi, R., Putra, S. T., & Sriyono, S.. (2017). Psychoneuroimmunology Approach to Improve Recovery Motivation, Decrease Cortisol and Blood Glucose of DM Type 2 Patients with Dhikr Therapy. Jurnal Ners, 12(1), 60–65.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.20473/jn.v12i1.2315
DOI URL
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Mathews, H. L., & Janusek, L. W.. (2011). Epigenetics and psychoneuroimmunology: Mechanisms and models. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25(1), 25–39.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2010.08.009
DOI URL
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Labanski, A., Langhorst, J., Engler, H., & Elsenbruch, S.. (2020). Stress and the brain-gut axis in functional and chronic-inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases: A transdisciplinary challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 111, 104501.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.104501
DOI URL
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Leckman, J. F.. (2014). Commentary: What does immunology have to do with brain development and psychopathology? – A commentary on O’Connor et al. (2014). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12259
DOI URL
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Segerstrom, S. C., Glover, D. A., Craske, M. G., & Fahey, J. L.. (1999). Worry Affects the Immune Response to Phobic Fear. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 13(2), 80–92.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1006/brbi.1998.0544
DOI URL
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Aziez Chettoum, Kamilia Guedri, Zouhir Djerrou, Rachid Mosbah, Latifa Khattabi, Abir Boumaaza, & Wissam Benferdi. (2020). Distribution of leukocyte subpopulation among students threatened by failure. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(3), 3807–3812.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.26452/ijrps.v11i3.2553
DOI URL
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Neuromodulation techniques: A synoptic overview


Peter, N., & Kleinjung, T.. (2019). Neuromodulation for tinnitus treatment: an overview of invasive and non-invasive techniques. Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1700117
DOI URL
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Fomenko, A., Neudorfer, C., Dallapiazza, R. F., Kalia, S. K., & Lozano, A. M.. (2018). Low-intensity ultrasound neuromodulation: An overview of mechanisms and emerging human applications. Brain Stimulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.08.013
DOI URL
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Brock, D. G., & Demitrack, M. A.. (2014). Therapeutic neuromodulation: Overview of a novel treatment platform. Psychiatric Annals

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3928/00485713-20140609-04
DOI URL
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Gunduz, A., & Ruffini, G.. (2018). Editorial overview: Neuromodulation. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.12.001
DOI URL
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Pathak, Y. J., Greenleaf, W., Verhagen Metman, L., Kubben, P., Sarma, S., Pepin, B., … Ross, E.. (2021). Digital Health Integration With Neuromodulation Therapies: The Future of Patient-Centric Innovation in Neuromodulation. Frontiers in Digital Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fdgth.2021.618959
DOI URL
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Velasco, F.. (2000). Neuromodulation: An overview. Archives of Medical Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/S0188-4409(00)00063-1
DOI URL
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Tanagho, E. A.. (2012). Neuromodulation and neurostimulation: Overview and future potential. Translational Andrology and Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2012.01.01
DOI URL
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Kulkarni, S., & Kothari, S.. (2020). Pediatric Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation: An Overview. In Neurology India

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.302474
DOI URL
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Roy, H., Offiah, I., & Dua, A.. (2018). Neuromodulation for pelvic and urogenital pain. Brain Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/brainsci8100180
DOI URL
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N., P., & T., K.. (2019). Neuromodulation for tinnitus treatment: an overview of invasive and non-invasive techniques. Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B
McCormick, D. A., & Nusbaum, M. P.. (2014). Editorial overview: Neuromodulation: Tuning the properties of neurons, networks and behavior. Current Opinion in Neurobiology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2014.10.010
DOI URL
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Yu, K., Niu, X., & He, B.. (2020). Neuromodulation Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in the Central Nervous System. Advanced Functional Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201908999
DOI URL
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(2019). An overview on Neuromodulation. Case Medical Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.31525/cmr-fbd972
DOI URL
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Vanneste, S., & De Ridder, D.. (2012). Noninvasive and invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of tinnitus: An overview. Neuromodulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1403.2012.00447.x
DOI URL
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Waldron, N. H., Fudim, M., Mathew, J. P., & Piccini, J. P.. (2019). Neuromodulation for the Treatment of Heart Rhythm Disorders. JACC: Basic to Translational Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2019.02.009
DOI URL
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Luigjes, J., Breteler, R., Vanneste, S., & de Ridder, D.. (2013). [Neuromodulation as an intervention for addiction: overview and future prospects].. Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Brunoni, A. R., Teng, C. T., Correa, C., Imamura, M., Brasil-Neto, J. P., Boechat, R., … Fregni, F.. (2010). Neuromodulation approaches for the treatment of major depression: Challenges and recommendations from a working group meeting. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1590/s0004-282×2010000300021
DOI URL
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Antony, A. B., Mazzola, A. J., Dhaliwal, G. S., & Hunter, C. W.. (2019). Neurostimulation for the treatment of chronic head and facial pain: A literature review. Pain Physician

Plain numerical DOI: 10.36076/ppj/2019.22.447
DOI URL
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Schluter, R. S., Daams, J. G., Van Holst, R. J., & Goudriaan, A. E.. (2018). Effects of non-invasive neuromodulation on executive and other cognitive functions in addictive disorders: A systematic review. Frontiers in Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00642
DOI URL
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Hunter, C. W., Stovall, B., Chen, G., Carlson, J., & Levy, R.. (2018). Anatomy, pathophysiology and interventional therapies for chronic pelvic pain: A review. Pain Physician

Plain numerical DOI: 10.36076/ppj.2018.2.147
DOI URL
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Powell, K., Shah, K., Hao, C., Wu, Y.-C., John, A., Narayan, R. K., & Li, C.. (2019). Neuromodulation as a new avenue for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock. Bioelectronic Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/s42234-019-0033-z
DOI URL
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Fletcher, N.. (2020). An overview of sacral neuromodulation: A treatment for patients with symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. British Journal of Nursing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.12968/bjon.2020.29.15.848
DOI URL
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Shin, S. S., & Pelled, G.. (2017). Novel neuromodulation techniques to assess interhemispheric communication in neural injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2017.00015
DOI URL
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Abboud, H., Hill, E., Siddiqui, J., Serra, A., & Walter, B.. (2017). Neuromodulation in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1352458517736150
DOI URL
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Tohyama, S., Walker, M. R., Sammartino, F., Krishna, V., & Hodaie, M.. (2020). The Utility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Neuromodulation: Moving Beyond Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuromodulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/ner.13107
DOI URL
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Lakatos, P., Gross, J., & Thut, G.. (2019). A New Unifying Account of the Roles of Neuronal Entrainment. Current Biology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.07.075
DOI URL
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Vlaicu, A., & Bustuchina Vlaicu, M.. (2020). New neuromodulation techniques for treatment resistant depression. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13651501.2020.1728340
DOI URL
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Yang, X., McGlynn, E., Das, R., Paşca, S. P., Cui, B., & Heidari, H.. (2021). Nanotechnology Enables Novel Modalities for Neuromodulation. Advanced Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/adma.202103208
DOI URL
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Ramirez-Zamora, A., Giordano, J. J., Gunduz, A., Brown, P., Sanchez, J. C., Foote, K. D., … Okun, M. S.. (2018). Evolving applications, technological challenges and future opportunities in neuromodulation: Proceedings of the fifth annual deep brain stimulation think tank. Frontiers in Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00734
DOI URL
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Goudriaan, A. E., & Schluter, R. S.. (2019). Non-invasive Neuromodulation in Problem Gambling: What Are the Odds?. Current Addiction Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s40429-019-00266-y
DOI URL
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Elias, G. J. B., Boutet, A., Parmar, R., Wong, E. H. Y., Germann, J., Loh, A., … Bhat, V.. (2021). Neuromodulatory treatments for psychiatric disease: A comprehensive survey of the clinical trial landscape. Brain Stimulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2021.08.021
DOI URL
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Doshi, P. P., Russo, M., & Doshi, P. K.. (2021). Practice Trends of Neuromodulation Therapies for Pain and Spasticity in India. Neuromodulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/ner.13393
DOI URL
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Ward, M., Doran, J., Paskhover, B., & Mammis, A.. (2018). The 50 Most Cited Articles in Invasive Neuromodulation. World Neurosurgery

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.170
DOI URL
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Starling, A.. (2018). Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache. Current Opinion in Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000557
DOI URL
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Senova, S., Fomenko, A., Gondard, E., & Lozano, A. M.. (2020). Anatomy and function of the fornix in the context of its potential as a therapeutic target. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-322375
DOI URL
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Doesborg, P., & Haan, J.. (2018). Cluster headache: New targets and options for treatment. F1000Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.13380.1
DOI URL
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Gardner, J.. (2017). Securing a future for responsible neuromodulation in children: The importance of maintaining a broad clinical gaze. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.04.019
DOI URL
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Crockett, M. J., & Fehr, E.. (2014). Social brains on drugs: Tools for neuromodulation in social neuroscience. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/scan/nst113
DOI URL
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Edwards, C. A., Kouzani, A., Lee, K. H., & Ross, E. K.. (2017). Neurostimulation Devices for the Treatment of Neurologic Disorders. Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.05.005
DOI URL
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Rimmele, F., & Jürgens, T. P.. (2020). Neuromodulation in primary headaches: current evidence and integration into clinical practice. Current Opinion in Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000820
DOI URL
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La Rosa, V. L., Platania, A., Ciebiera, M., Garzon, S., Jȩdra, R., Ponta, M., & Buttice, S.. (2019). A comparison of sacral neuromodulation vs. transvaginal electrical stimulation for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder: The impact on quality of life, body image, sexual function, and emotional well-being. Przeglad Menopauzalny

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5114/pm.2019.86834
DOI URL
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Pericolini, M., Miget, G., Hentzen, C., Finazzi Agrò, E., Chesnel, C., Lagnau, P., … Amarenco, G.. (2021). Cortical, Spinal, Sacral, and Peripheral Neuromodulations as Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Review. Neuromodulation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/ner.13525
DOI URL
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Pauwels, N., Willemse, C., Hellemans, S., Komen, N., Van den Broeck, S., Roenen, J., … De Schepper, H.. (2021). The role of neuromodulation in chronic functional constipation: A systematic review. Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica

Plain numerical DOI: 10.51821/84.3.012
DOI URL
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Azad, T. D., Veeravagu, A., & Steinberg, G. K.. (2016). Neurorestoration after stroke. Neurosurgical Focus

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3171/2016.2.FOCUS15637
DOI URL
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de Wall, L. L., & Heesakkers, J. P. F. A.. (2017). Effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. Research and Reports in Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2147/RRU.S124981
DOI URL
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Ramirez-Zamora, A., Giordano, J., Boyden, E. S., Gradinaru, V., Gunduz, A., Starr, P. A., … Okun, M. S.. (2019). Proceedings of the Sixth Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank Modulation of Brain Networks and Application of Advanced Neuroimaging, Neurophysiology, and Optogenetics. In Frontiers in Neuroscience

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00936
DOI URL
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Klooster, D. C. W., de Louw, A. J. A., Aldenkamp, A. P., Besseling, R. M. H., Mestrom, R. M. C., Carrette, S., … Boon, P.. (2016). Technical aspects of neurostimulation: Focus on equipment, electric field modeling, and stimulation protocols. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.02.016
DOI URL
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De Ridder, D., Manning, P., Cape, G., Vanneste, S., Langguth, B., & Glue, P.. (2016). Pathophysiology-Based Neuromodulation for Addictions: An Overview. In Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800213-1.00002-X
DOI URL
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Lo, P. A., Huang, K., Zhou, Q., Humayun, M. S., & Yue, L.. (2020). Ultrasonic retinal neuromodulation and acoustic retinal prosthesis. Micromachines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/mi11100929
DOI URL
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Krauss, J. K., Lipsman, N., Aziz, T., Boutet, A., Brown, P., Chang, J. W., … Lozano, A. M.. (2021). Technology of deep brain stimulation: current status and future directions. Nature Reviews Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41582-020-00426-z
DOI URL
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S., V., & D., D. R.. (2012). Noninvasive and invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of tinnitus: An overview. Neuromodulation
Kaczmarek, K. A.. (2017). The Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS) for neurorehabilitation. Scientia Iranica

Plain numerical DOI: 10.24200/sci.2017.4489
DOI URL
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Somani, A., & Kar, S. K.. (2019). Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression: The evidence thus far. General Psychiatry

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1136/gpsych-2019-100074
DOI URL
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Meng, Y., Hynynen, K., & Lipsman, N.. (2021). Applications of focused ultrasound in the brain: from thermoablation to drug delivery. Nature Reviews Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/s41582-020-00418-z
DOI URL
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Coman, A., Skårderud, F., Reas, D. L., & Hofmann, B. M.. (2014). The ethics of neuromodulation for anorexia nervosa: A focus on rTMS. Journal of Eating Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/2050-2974-2-10
DOI URL
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Herremans, S. C., & Baeken, C.. (2017). Clinical effects of non-invasive neuromodulation techniques in substance use disorder: An overview. Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Tyler, W. J.. (2011). Noninvasive neuromodulation with ultrasound? A continuum mechanics hypothesis. Neuroscientist

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1073858409348066
DOI URL
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Yamamoto, K., Elias, G. J. B., Beyn, M. E., Zemmar, A., Loh, A., Sarica, C., … Lozano, A. M.. (2021). Neuromodulation for Pain: A Comprehensive Survey and Systematic Review of Clinical Trials and Connectomic Analysis of Brain Targets. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1159/000517873
DOI URL
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Hennessey, D. B., Hoag, N., & Gani, J.. (2017). Impact of bladder dysfunction in the management of post radical prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence-a review. Translational Andrology and Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.21037/tau.2017.04.14
DOI URL
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Urits, I., Schwartz, R., Smoots, D., Koop, L., Veeravelli, S., Orhurhu, V., … Viswanath, O.. (2020). Peripheral neuromodulation for the management of headache. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5812/aapm.110515
DOI URL
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Robbins, M. S., & Burch, R.. (2021). Preventive Migraine Treatment. CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000957
DOI URL
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Ahmed, A. I., & Lucas, J. D.. (2020). Spinal cord injury: pathophysiology and strategies for regeneration. Orthopaedics and Trauma

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.mporth.2020.06.003
DOI URL
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Argiolas, A., & Melis, M. R.. (1995). Neuromodulation of penile erection: an overview of the role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Progress in Neurobiology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/0301-0082(95)80003-Q
DOI URL
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Mohammad, S. S., Paget, S. P., & Dale, R. C.. (2019). Current therapies and therapeutic decision making for childhood-onset movement disorders. Movement Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/mds.27661
DOI URL
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Rajan, R., Skorvanek, M., Magocova, V., Siddiqui, J., Alsinaidi, O., Shinawi, H., … Bajwa, J.. (2020). Neuromodulation Options and Patient Selection for Parkinson’s Disease. In Neurology India

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.302473
DOI URL
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Dean, O. M., Gliddon, E., Van Rheenen, T. E., Giorlando, F., Davidson, S. K., Kaur, M., … Williams, L. J.. (2018). An update on adjunctive treatment options for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/bdi.12601
DOI URL
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Moisset, X., Lanteri-Minet, M., & Fontaine, D.. (2020). Neurostimulation methods in the treatment of chronic pain. Journal of Neural Transmission

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00702-019-02092-y
DOI URL
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Erőss, L., Entz, L., & Fabó, D.. (2015). Invasive neuromodulation in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsies. Orvosi Hetilap

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1556/650.2015.30319
DOI URL
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Ashina, M., Buse, D. C., Ashina, H., Pozo-Rosich, P., Peres, M. F. P., Lee, M. J., … Dodick, D. W.. (2021). Migraine: integrated approaches to clinical management and emerging treatments. The Lancet

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32342-4
DOI URL
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All, A. H., Zeng, X., Teh, D. B. L., Yi, Z., Prasad, A., Ishizuka, T., … Liu, X.. (2019). Expanding the Toolbox of Upconversion Nanoparticles for In Vivo Optogenetics and Neuromodulation. Advanced Materials

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/adma.201803474
DOI URL
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Fandel, T., & Tanagho, E. A.. (2005). Neuromodulation in voiding dysfunction: A historical overview of neurostimulation and its application. Urologic Clinics of North America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2004.09.006
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Zbar, A. P.. (2014). Sacral neuromodulation and peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with anal incontinence: An overview of techniques, complications and troubleshooting. Gastroenterology Report

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/gastro/gou015
DOI URL
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Karri, J., Singh, M., Orhurhu, V., Joshi, M., & Abd-Elsayed, A.. (2020). Pain Syndromes Secondary to Cluneal Nerve Entrapment. Current Pain and Headache Reports

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11916-020-00891-7
DOI URL
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Fekete, Z., Horváth, C., & Zátonyi, A.. (2020). Infrared neuromodulation:A neuroengineering perspective. Journal of Neural Engineering

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1088/1741-2552/abb3b2
DOI URL
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Zhu, A., Qureshi, A. A., Kozin, E. D., & Lee, D. J.. (2020). Concepts in Neural Stimulation: Electrical and Optical Modulation of the Auditory Pathways. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.otc.2019.09.002
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LeBeau, F. E. N., El Manira, A., & Griller, S.. (2005). Tuning the network: Modulation of neuronal microcircuits in the spinal cord and hippocampus. Trends in Neurosciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2005.08.005
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Cha, K. S., Yeo, D., & Kim, K. H.. (2016). Neural signal processing for closed-loop neuromodulation. Biomedical Engineering Letters

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0231-5
DOI URL
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Hoffmann, J., & May, A.. (2019). Neuromodulation for the treatment of primary headache syndromes. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2019.1585243
DOI URL
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Martens, F. M. J., & Sievert, K. D.. (2020). Neurostimulation in neurogenic patients. Current Opinion in Urology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000773
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