“F the metaphorical understanding of a situation functions in two parts irst, there is a widespread, relatively fixed set of metaphors that structure how fc we think. for example, a decision to go to war might be seen as a form o ost-benefit analysis, where war is justified …”
Steuter, E., & Wills, D.. (2008). At war with metaphor. Nueva York: Rowman and …
“BACKGROUND:pedomorphism is the retention of ancestrally juvenile traits by adults in a descendant taxon. despite its importance for evolutionary change, there are few examples of a molecular basis for this phenomenon. notothenioids represent one of the best described species flocks among marine fishes, but their diversity is currently threatened by the rapidly changing antarctic climate. notothenioid evolutionary history is characterized by parallel radiations from a benthic ancestor to pelagic predators, which was accompanied by the appearance of several pedomorphic traits, including the reduction of skeletal mineralization that resulted in increased buoyancy.results:we compared craniofacial skeletal development in two pelagic notothenioids, chaenocephalus aceratus and pleuragramma antarcticum, to that in a benthic species, notothenia coriiceps, and two outgroups, the threespine stickleback and the zebrafish. relative to these other species, pelagic notothenioids exhibited a delay in pharyngeal bone development, which was associated with discrete heterochronic shifts in skeletal gene expression that were consistent with persistence of the chondrogenic program and a delay in the osteogenic program during larval development. morphological analysis also revealed a bias toward the development of anterior and ventral elements of the notothenioid pharyngeal skeleton relative to dorsal and posterior elements.conclusions:our data support the hypothesis that early shifts in the relative timing of craniofacial skeletal gene expression may have had a significant impact on the adaptive radiation of antarctic notothenioids into pelagic habitats.”
Thibodeau, P. H., Hendricks, R. K., & Boroditsky, L.. (2017). How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences
“Language helps people communicate and think. precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. but a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are ‘light bulbs’, crime is a ‘virus’, and cancer is an ‘enemy’ in a ‘war’. in this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. we first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. metaphors pervade discussions of abstract concepts and complex issues: ideas are ‘light bulbs’, crime is a ‘virus’, and cancer is an ‘enemy’ in a ‘war’. at a process level, metaphors, like analogies, involve structure mapping, in which relational structure from the source domain is leveraged for thinking about the target domain. metaphors influence how people think about the topics they describe by shaping how people attend to, remember, and process information. the effects of metaphor on reasoning are not simply the result of lexical priming. metaphors can covertly influence how people think. that is, people are not always aware that they have been influenced by a metaphor.”
Hülsse, R., & Spencer, A.. (2008). The metaphor of terror: Terrorism studies and the constructivist turn. Security Dialogue
“Terrorism studies is fascinated with the terrorist actor. though this may seem natural, the present article argues that a different perspective can be fruitful. from a constructivist point of view, terrorism is a social construction. the terrorist actor is a product of discourse, and hence discourse is the logical starting point for terrorism research. in particular, it is the discourse of the terrorists’ adversaries that constitutes terrorist motivations, strategies, organizational structures and goals. hence, the article suggests a shift of perspective in terrorism studies – from an actor-centred to a discourse-centred perspective. it develops a discourse approach that emphasizes the crucial role of metaphors in the making of reality. to illustrate this approach, the metaphorical construction of al-qaeda in the german popular press in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in new york and washington ( 2001), madrid ( 2004) and london ( 2005) is analysed. terrorism was first constituted as war, but from 2004 onwards the principal metaphor shifted from war to crime, constructing al-qaeda as a criminal rather than a military organization. this shift has transformed al-qaeda from an external to an internal threat, which has entailed a shift in counter-terrorism practices from a military to a judicial response.”
Ferrari, F.. (2007). Metaphor at work in the analysis of political discourse: Investigating a “preventive war” persuasion strategy. Discourse and Society
“The crucial historical moment represented by post 9/11 may undoubtedly be considered responsible for the subsequent hardening of american political rhetoric. and yet, the sudden increase of consensus catalysed by george w. bush and the consequences of his international policy bring his modus persuadendi up for discussion. the aim of this article is to present a framework for a metaphor-based critical analysis of persuasion in political discourse. our object of observation is george w. bush’s public speeches to the nation (2001–4). more specifically, the analysis is focused on the persuasion strategy enacted to promote the preventive war in iraq. in our approach, conceptual metaphor as related to emotion constitutes the fundamental argumentative feature and crucial tool to address the matter of persuasion in text, contributing to identifying both the ideological root and the persuasive strategy of a given discourse in the long run. synthesis of our results shows the potentialities of metaphor as a privileged cognitive tool for abstracting and constructing discourse strategies.”
Thibodeau, P., Mcclelland, J. L., & Boroditsky, L.. (2009). When a bad metaphor may not be a victimless crime : The role of metaphor in social policy. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society
“Metaphors are pervasive in our discussions of abstract and complex ideas (lakoff & johnson, 1980), and have been shown to be instrumental in problem solving and building new conceptual structure (e.g., gentner & gentner, 1983; nersessian, 1992; boroditsky, 2000). in this paper we look at the role of metaphor in framing social issues. our language for discussing war, crime, politics, healthcare, and the economy is suffused with metaphor (schön, 1993; lakoff, 2002). does the way we reason about such important issues as crime, war or the economy depend on the metaphors we use to talk about these topics? might changing metaphors lead us to different conceptions and in turn different social policies? in this paper we focused on the domain of crime and asked whether two different metaphorical systems we have for talking about crime can lead people to different ways of approaching and reasoning about it. we find that framing the issue of crime metaphorically as a predator yielded systematically different suggestions for solving the crime problem than when crime was described as a virus. we then present a connectionist model that explores the mechanistic underpinnings of the role of metaphor.”
Spencer, A.. (2012). The social construction of terrorism: Media, metaphors and policy implications. Journal of International Relations and Development
“The article illustrates a constructivist understanding of studying terrorism and counter-terrorism by applying metaphor analysis to a british tabloid media discourse on terrorism between 2001 and 2005 in the sun newspaper. it identifies four conceptual metaphors constituting terrorism as a war, a crime, an uncivilised evil and as a disease, and it illustrates how these understandings make certain counter-terrorism policies such as a military response, judicial measures or immigration policies acceptable while at the same time excluding from consideration other options, such as negotiations. it thereby re-emphasises that a metaphorical understanding of political phenomena such as terrorism can give international relations insights into how certain policies become possible while others remain outside of the range of options thought to be appropriate.”
At war with metaphor: media, propaganda, and racism in the war on terror. (2013). Choice Reviews Online
“A valuable contribution to our growing understanding of the ways in which we talk ourselves into war, genocide, and other crimes against humanity. it causes us to wonder what might happen if we had the courage to deal with our rivalries and conflicts in a realistic manner rather than dehumanizing and demonizing those we consider enemies. ” —sam keen, author of faces of the enemy when photographs documenting the torture and humiliation of prisoners at abu ghraib came to the attention of a horrified public, national and international voices were raised in shock, asking how this happened. at war with metaphor offers an answer, arguing that the abuses of abu ghraib were part of a systemic continuum of dehumanization. this continuum has its roots in our public discussions of the war on terror and the metaphors through which they are repeatedly framed. arguing earnestly and incisively that these metaphors, if left unexamined, bind us into a cycle of violence that will only be intensified by a responsive violence of metaphor, erin steuter and deborah wills examine compelling examples of the images of animal, insect, and disease that inform, shape, and limit our understand-ing of the war on terror. tying these images to historical and contemporary uses of propaganda through a readable, accessible analysis of media filters, at war with metaphor vividly explores how news media, including political cartoons and talk radio, are enmeshed in these damaging, dehumanizing metaphors. analyzing media through the lenses of race and orientalism, the book invites us to hold our media and ourselves accountable for the choices we make in talking war and making enemies.”
Kövecses, Z.. (2016). Conceptual metaphor theory. In The Routledge Handbook of Metaphor and Language
“In a radical departure from theories based on digital, amodal accounts of cognition and language, lakoff and johnson (1980) proposed an account of metaphor as fundamentally conceptual, arguing that familiar linguistic metaphors are but surface manifestations of underlying conceptual relationships. they claimed that most conceptual thought is metaphorical, and conceptual domains are instantiated and expressed in families of conceptual metaphors, such as ‘more is u’, ‘emotionallyintimate is physically close’, ‘argument is war’, ‘love is a journey’, and ‘theories are buildings’. these conceptual metaphors number in the hundreds (gibbs, 1994b; lakoff and johnson, 1999), and they combine to serve as the foundation for new metaphors. for many of these families of metaphors lakoff and johnson trace the underlying metaphor to a literal concept based on embodied physical experience.”
Navaro-Yashin, Y.. (2009). Affective spaces, melancholic objects: Ruination and the production of anthropological knowledge. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
“This article critically engages with recent theoretical writings on affect and non-human agency by way of studying the emotive energies discharged by properties and objects appropriated during war from members of the so-called ‘enemy’ community. the ethnographic material comes from long-term fieldwork in northern cyprus, focusing on how it feels to live with the objects and within the ruins left behind by the other, now displaced, community. i study turkish-cypriots’ relations to houses, land, and objects that they appropriated from the greek-cypriots during the war of 1974 and the subsequent partition of cyprus. my ethnographic material leads me to reflect critically on the object-centred philosophy of actor network theory and on the affective turn in the human sciences after the work of gilles deleuze. with the metaphor of ‘ruination’, i study what goes amiss in scholarly declarations of theoretical turns or shifts. instead, proposing an anthropologically engaged theory of affect through an ethnographic reflection on spatial and material melancholia, i argue that ethnography, in its most productive moments, is trans-paradigmatic. retaining what has been ruined as still needful of consideration, i suggest an approach which merges theories of affect and subjectivity as well as of language and materiality.”
Koller, V., Hardie, A., Rayson, P., & Semino, E.. (2008). Using a semantic annotation tool for the analysis of metaphor in discourse. Metaphorik.De
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“This paper describes the application of semantic annotation software for analysing metaphor in corpora of different genres. in particular, we outline three projects analysing religion and politics metaphors in corporate mission statements, the war metaphor in business magazines, and machine and living organism metaphors in a novel and in a second collection of business magazine articles. this research was guided by the hypotheses that a) semantic tags allocated by the software can correspond to source domains of metaphoric expressions, and b) that more conventional metaphors feature a source domain tag as first choice in the type’s semantic profile. the tagger was adapted to better serve the needs of metaphor research and automate to a greater extent the extraction of first choice and secondary semantic domains. two of the three studies represent re-analyses of previous manual and/or lexical corpus-based investigations, and findings indicate that semantic annotation can yield more comprehensive results. in”
Yanık, L. K.. (2009). The Metamorphosis of Metaphors of Vision: “Bridging” Turkey’s Location, Role and Identity After the End of the Cold War. Geopolitics
“During the cold war, ‘buffer’ or ‘bastion’ seemed a popular metaphor to describe turkey. after the cold war, ‘bridge,’ (and, to some extent, the ‘crossroad’) metaphor started to dominate the turkish foreign policy dışcourse. this article traces the use of ‘bridge’ metaphor in this dışcourse in the post-cold war period by the turkish foreign policy elite. it develops two arguments. first, the word bridge is a ‘metaphor of vision’ combining turkey’s perceived geographical exceptionalism with an identity and a role at the international level. as a ‘metaphor of vision,’ the employment of the word ‘bridge’ highlighted turkey’s liminality and justified some of its foreign policy actions to eurasia and then to the middle east. second, because the bridge metaphor was used in different context to justify different foreign policy choices, its meaning has changed, illustrating that metaphors are not static constructs. it concludes by sayıng that the continuous use of ‘bridge’ metaphor might reinforce turkey’s ‘liminality,’ placing turkey in a less classifiable category than the regular ‘othering’ practices.”
In ancient Greek the word for ‘steer’ is ‘kybernan’ which in turn forms the root of the term ‘cybernetics’ coined 1948 by U.S. mathematician Norbert Wiener. The construction is perhaps based on 1830s French cybernétique ‘the art of governing’. In an academic context cybernetics is the theory or study of communication and control. In general, cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
The Latin term ‘gubernare’ (to direct, rule, guide, steer, govern) has the same etymological root. The word ‘governor’ and ‘goverment’ are both related.”
Wiener is considered the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback, with implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, neuroscience, philosophy, and the organization of society.
Norbert Wiener is credited as being one of the first to theorize that all intelligent behavior was the result of feedback mechanisms, that could possibly be simulated by machines and was an important early step towards the development of modern AI.
Norbert Wiener – The Application of Physics to Medicine (1953)
Miles, S. B., & Wiener, N.. (2006). The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society. Land Economics
“This is one of the fundamental documents of our time, a period characterized by the concepts of ‘information’ and ‘communica tions’. norbert wiener, a child prodigy and a great mathematician, coined the term ‘cybernetics’ to characterize a very general science of ‘control and communication in the animal and machine’. it brought together concepts from engineering, the study of the nervous system and statistical mechanics (e.g. entropy). from these he developed concepts that have become pervasive through science (especially biology and computing) and common parlance: ‘in formation’, ‘message’, ‘feedback’ and ‘control’. he wrote, ‘the thought of every age is reflected in its technique . . . if the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries are the age of clocks, and the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries constitute the age of steam engines, the present time is the age of communication and control.’ in this volume norbert wiener spells out his theories for the general reader and reflects on the social issues raised by the dramatically increasing role of science and technology in the new age – the age in which we are now deeply and problematically embroiled. his cautionary remarks are as relevant now as they were when the book first appeared in the 1950s.”
Heylighen, F., & Joslyn, C.. (2004). Cybernetics and Second-Order Cybernetics. In Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology
“Nd in the 19th century with ampre, who both saw it as the science of effective government. the concept was revived and elaborated by the mathematician norbert wiener in his seminal 1948 book, whose title defined it as ‘cybernetics, or the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine’. inspired by wartime and pre-war results in mechanical control systems such as servomechanisms and artillery targeting systems, and the contemporaneous development of a mathematical theory of communication (or 3 information) by claude shannon, wiener set out to develop a general theory of organizational and control relations in systems. information theory, control theory and control systems engineering have since developed into independent disciplines. what distinguishes cybernetics is its emphasis on control and communication not only in engineered, artificial systems, but also in evolved, natural systems such as organisms and societies, which set their own goals, rather than being c”
Wiener, N.. (1956). The theory of prediction. In Modern mathematics for the engineer, editor E.F. Beckenbach
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“￼11 in ‘modern mathematics for the engineer,’ first series, edited by ef beckenbach, mcgraw-hill book company, inc., new york, 1956. …”
Rosenblueth, A., & Wiener, N.. (2002). The Role of Models in Science. Philosophy of Science
“The intention and the result of a scientific inquiry is to obtain an understanding and a control of some part of the universe. this statement implies a dualistic attitude on the part of scientists. indeed, science does and should proceed from this dualistic basis. but even though the scientist behaves dualistically, his dualism is operational and does not necessarily imply strict dualistic metaphysics.”
Rosenblueth, A., Wiener, N., & Bigelow, J.. (2002). Behavior, Purpose and Teleology. Philosophy of Science
“This paper traces the application of information theory to philosophical problems ofmind andmeaning from the earliest days of the creation of the mathematical theory of communication. the use of information theory to understand purposive behavior, learning, pattern recognition, and more marked the beginning of the naturalization of mind and meaning. from the inception of information theory, wiener, turing, and others began trying to show how to make a mind from informational and computational materials. over the last 50 years, many philosophers saw different aspects of the naturalization of the mind, though few saw at once all of the pieces of the puzzle that we now know. starting with norbert wiener himself, philosophers and information theorists used concepts from information theory to understand cognition. this paper provides a window on the historical sequence of contributions made to the overall project of naturalizing the mind by philosophers from shannon,wiener, and mackay, to dennett, sayre, dretske, fodor, and perry, among others. at some time between 1928 and 1948, american engineers and mathematicians began to talk about ‘theory of information’ and ‘information theory,’ understanding by these terms approx- imately and vaguely a theory for which hartley’s ‘amount of information’ is a basic concept. i have been unable to find out when and by whom these names were first used. hartley himself does not use them nor does he employ the term ‘theory of transmission of information,’ from which the two other shorter terms presumably were derived. it seems that norbert wiener and claude shannon were using them in the mid-forties. (yehoshua”
Wiener, N.. (2011). Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine (2nd ed.). Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine (2nd ed.).
“This paper examines the empirical question of whether systematic equity risk of us firms as measured by beta from the capital asset pricing model reflects the risk of their pension plans. there are a number of reasons to suspect that it might not. chief among them is the opaque set of accounting rules used to report pension assets, liabilities, and expenses. pension plan assets and liabilities are off-balance sheet and are often viewed as segregated from the rest of the firm, with its own trustees. pension accounting rules are complicated. furthermore, the role of the pension benefit guaranty corporation clouds the real relation between pension plan risk and firm equity risk. the empirical findings in this paper are consistent with the hypothesis that equity risk does reflect the risk of the firm’s pension plan despite arcane accounting rules for pensions. this finding is consistent with informational efficiency of the capital markets. it also has implications for corporate finance practice in the determination of the cost of capital for capital budgeting. standard procedure uses de-leveraged equity return betas to infer the cost of capital for operating assets. but the de-leveraged betas are not adjusted for the risk of the pension assets and liabilities. failure to make this adjustment typically biases upward estimates of the discount rate for capital budgeting. the magnitude of the bias is shown here to be large for a number of well-known us companies. this bias can result in positive net present value projects being rejected.”
Wiener, N.. (1960). Some moral and technical consequences of automation. Science
“Some 13 years ago, a book of mine was published by the name of cybernetics. in it i discussed the problems of control and communication in the living organism and the machine. i made a considerable number of predictions about the development of controlled machines and about the corresponding techniques of automatization, which i foresaw as having important consequences affecting the society of the future. now, 13 years later, it seems appropriate to take stock of the present position with respect to both cybernetic technique and the social consequences of this technique. before commencing on the detail of these matters, i should like to mention a certain attitude of the man in the street toward cybernetics and automatization. this attitude”
The concept of psychological warfare emerged in Nazi Germany and was later adopted by the USA.
The word is a translation of the German “Weltanschauungskrieg” (war of worldviews). Wall Street Lawyer William Donovan “Wild Bill” was one of the first to use it in the context of public relations in the USA. President Franklin Roosevelt appointed him as Director of the new U.S. intelligence agency, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS, predecessor of the CIA) who saw “psychological warfare” as an important stratagem for “engineering of consent” in the public mind (see Chomskys & Hermans “propaganda model”).
William Joseph Donovan (January 1, 1883 – February 8, 1959)
Donovan viewed an understanding of Nazi psychological tactics as a vital source of ideas for “Americanized’’ versions of many of the same stratagems. Use of the new term quickly became widespread throughout the U.S. intelligence community. . . Donovan was among the first in the US to articulate a more or less unified theory of psychological warfare. . . As he saw it, the “engineering of consent” techniques used in peacetime propaganda campaigns could be quite effectively adapted to open warfare. Pro-Allied propaganda was essential to reorganizing the U.S. economy for war and for creating public support at home for intervention in Europe, Donovan believed. Fifth-column movements could be employed abroad as sources of intelligence and as morale-builders for populations under Axis control. He saw “special operations” — meaning sabotage, subversion, commando raids, and guerrilla movements — as useful for softening up targets prior to conventional military assaults. (Simpson. Science of Coercion, 1994, p. 24)
Oxford University Press; January 1996
Title: Science of Coercion
Author: Christopher Simpson
Imprint: Oxford University Press (US)
“Science of Coercion provides the first thorough examination of the role of the CIA, the Pentagon, and other U.S. security agencies in the evolution of modern communication research, a field in the social sciences which crystallized into a distinct discipline in the early 1950s. Government-funded psychological warfare programs underwrote the academic triumph of preconceptions about communication that persist today in communication studies, advertising research, and in counterinsurgency operations. Christopher Simpson contends that it is unlikely that communication research could have emerged into its present form without regular transfusions of money from U.S military, intelligence, and propaganda agencies during the Cold War. These agencies saw mass communication as an instrument for persuading or dominating targeted groups in the United States and abroad; as a tool for improving military operations; and perhaps most fundamentally, as a mfeans to extend the U.S. influence more widely than ever before at a relatively modest cost. Communication research, in turn, became for a time the preferred method for testing and developing such techniques. Science of Coercion uses long-classified documents to probe the contributions made by prominent mass communication researchers such as Wilbur Schramm, Ithiel de Sola Pool, and others, then details the impact of psychological warfare projects on widely held preconceptions about social science and the nature of communication itself. A fascinating case study in the history of science and the sociology of knowledge, Science of Coercion offers valuable insights into the dynamics of ideology and the social psychology of communication.”
“Details how the u.s. government embarked on a covertnoperation to recruit and employ nazi scientists in thenyears following world war ii in an effort to preventntheir knowledge and expertise from falling into thenhands of the soviet union.”
Pellis, N. R.. (2014). Ethics in space medicine: Holocaust beginnings, the present, and the future. In Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust
“Space medicine began as an extension of aeronautical medicine. as airplanes developed the power and speed to achieve higher altitude, it became apparent that there were substantial challenges to human physiology that became obstacles to safe operation and pilot survival. research to understand these challenges was conducted in the early 1930s in the united states and europe. as europe progressed toward major conflict, germany’s third reich instituted a formal research program in aeronautical medicine. to lead this effort they chose a renowned physician and scientist, dr. hubertus strughold. dr. strughold was implicated in experiments during wwii on humans who were detainees of the third reich but never convicted of any crimes. at the end of the war, he came to america under operation paperclip to work for the us air force, where he extended his research from aircraft to spacecraft and coined the term ‘aerospace medicine.’ later he was detailed from the air force to the national aeronautical and space agency (nasa). although strughold’s role in nazi human subjects research has raised ethical questions about the origins of nasa’s space medicine program, the us space program has developed into a model civilian agency operating with the highest of ethical standards in science and exploration. as the agency pursues exploration and colonization of the solar system and deep space, new ethical issues will arise, challenging the agency to maintain these high standards.”
Beach, G. J.. (2013). 1945: Operation Paperclip: America’s First War for Tech Talent. In The U.S. Technology Skills Gap
“Although psychological warfare was practiced to a greater degree in the vietnam conflict than in any other war in history, virtually nothing has been published about it. perhaps few wished to be identified with such activity, or it may be that security considerations prevented discussion of the operations. at any rate, the end of the cold war has made it possible to take a brief look at a hitherto unknown (or undiscussed) subject. this article, however, does not make a pretense of being comprehensive for the whole war, but rather reflects personal observations during one brief period of intense fighting-the summer of 1966.”
Doob, L. W.. (1950). Goebbels’ Principles of Propaganda. Public Opinion Quarterly
“For almost a dozen years german propaganda minister goebbels was recognized as a master of his trade by those who fought and by those who acclaimed the nazi state. this article, based on both the published and unpublished portions of goebbels’ diary, summarizes the major propaganda principles which he followed.”
Welch, D.. (2004). Nazi Propaganda and the Volksgemeinschaft: Constructing a People’s Community. Journal of Contemporary History
“This article argues that the concept of a national or peoples community (volksgemeinschaft) was a key element in the revolutionary aims of the nazi regime, and illustrates the remarkably ambitious nature of its propaganda. propaganda presented an image of society that had successfully manufactured a national community by transcending social and class divisiveness through a new ethnic unity based on true german values. but was there a gap between the claims trumpeted in nazi propaganda and social reality? the intention of this article is to reappraise the effectiveness (or otherwise) of volksgemeinschaft by analysing the response from two sections of the community; the industrial working class and german youth.”
Adena, M., Enikolopov, R., Petrova, M., Santarosa, V., & Zhuravskaya, E.. (2015). Radio and the rise of the Nazis in prewar Germany. Quarterly Journal of Economics
“How do the media affect public support for democratic institutions in a fragile democracy? what role do they play in a dictatorial regime? we study these questions in the context of germany of the 1920s and 1930s. during the democratic period, when the weimar government introduced pro-government political news, the growth of nazi popularity slowed down in areas with access to radio. this effect was reversed during the campaign for the last competitive election as a result of the pro-nazi radio broadcast following hitler’s appointment as german chancellor. during the consolidation of dictatorship, radio propaganda helped the nazis to enroll new party members. after the nazis established their rule, radio propaganda incited anti-semitic acts and denunciations of jews to authorities by ordinary germans. the effect of anti-semitic propaganda varied depending on the listeners’ predispositions toward the message. nazi radio was most effective in places where anti-semitism was historically high and had a negative effect in places with historically low anti-semitism. ”
Meyer, M., & Welch, D.. (2006). Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933-1945. The History Teacher
“This is the most comprehensive analysis to date of nazi film propaganda in its political, social, and economic contexts, from the pre-war cinema as it fell under the control of the propaganda minister, joseph goebbels, through to the end of the second world war. david welch studies more than one hundred films of all types, identifying those aspects of nazi ideology that were concealed in the framework of popular entertainment.”
Kohl, D.. (2011). The Presentation of ” Self ” and ” Other ” in Nazi Propaganda. Psychology & Society
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The Oxford handbook of propaganda studies. (2014). Choice Reviews Online
“This handbook includes 23 essays by leading scholars from a variety of disciplines, divided into three sections: (1) histories and nationalities, (2) institutions and practices, and (3) theories and methodologies. in addition to dealing with the thorny question of definition, the handbook takes up an expansive set of assumptions and a full range of approaches that move propaganda beyond political campaigns and warfare to examine a wide array of cultural contexts and practices. pt. i histories and nationalities — 1. the invention of propaganda : a critical commentary on and translation of inscrutabili divinae providentiae arcano / maria teresa prendergast and thomas a. prendergast — 2. brazilian and north american slavery propagandas : some thoughts on difference / marcus wood — 3. a world to win : propaganda and african american expressive culture / bill v. mullen — 4. literacy or legibility : the trace of subjectivity in soviet socialist, realism / elizabeth a. papazian — 5. narrative and mendacity : anti-semitic propaganda in nazi germany / jeffrey herf — 6. the ‘hidden tyrant’ : propaganda, brainwashing, and psycho-politics in the cold war period / priscilla wald — 7. roof for a house divided : how u.s. propaganda evolved into public diplomacy / nicholas j. cull — 8. ‘thought-work’ and propaganda : chinese public diplomacy and public relations after tiananmen square / gary d. rawnsley — pt. ii institutions and practices — 9. instruction, indoctrination, imposition : conceptions of propaganda in the field of education / craig kridel — 10. books in the cold war : beyond ‘culture’ and ‘information’ / trysh travis — 11. ‘the new vehicle of nationalism’ : radio goes to war / michele hilmes — 12. built on a lie : propaganda, pedagogy, and the origins of the kuleshov effect / john mackay — 13. propagating modernity : german documentaries from the 1930s : information, instruction and indoctrination / thomas elsaesser — 14. ‘order out of chaos’ : freud, fascism, and the golden age of american advertising / lawrence r. samuel — 15. propaganda and pleasure : from kracauer to joyce / mark wollaeger — pt. iii theories and methodologies — 16. ‘the world’s greatest adventure in advertising’ : walter lippmann’s critique of censorship and propaganda / sue curry jansen — 17. propaganda among the ruins / debra hawhee — 18. jacques ellul’s contribution to propaganda studies / randal marlin — 19. the ends of misreading : propaganda, democracy, litera…”
Neudert, L.-M.. (2017). Computational Propaganda in Germany: A Cautionary Tale. Working Paper 2017.7. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda.
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“Political actors are using algorithms in efforts to sway public opinion. in some circumstances, the ways coded automation interacts with or affects human users are unforeseeable. in others, individuals and organizations build software that purposefully targets voters, activists, the media and political opponents. computational propaganda is the assemblage of social media, autonomous agents and algorithms tasked with the manipulation of opinion. automated scripts equipped with big data work over social media to advance ideological viewpoints. politicized social bots are one version of potentially malicious programs. state and non-state political actors have used computational propaganda to manipulate conversations, demobilize opposition and generate false support on twitter, facebook and instagram. understanding how technologies like these are used to spread propaganda and misinformation, engage with citizens and influence political outcomes is a pressing problem. we have worked with computer scientists to detect bots and misinformation in ‘real time’ during political events in germany. furthermore, we have interviewed german bot developers, journalists, data scientists, policy makers, academics, cyberwarfare specialists and victims of automated political attacks in order to investigate potential impacts of computational propaganda, especially in relation to the bundestagswahlen 2017 and ongoing right-wing currents in the public discourse. part 1 discusses social bot activity in germany and empirically analyses their employment during elections. part 2 evaluates misinformation and junk news. part 3 examines the political, commercial and social responses to computational propaganda. the findings presented structure the dispersed public debate on online propaganda, relate proposed countermeasures to empirical evidence and serve as a benchmark for evaluating computational propaganda activity in germany.”
Berelson, B., & De Grazia, S.. (1947). Detecting collaboration in propaganda. Public Opinion Quarterly
“The study of mass communications can be divided into three parts: intent analysis, content analysis and effect analysis. this order not only reflects chronology. by placing content analysis in the middle position, it also highlights the contribution of that procedure to the other two, namely, to support inferences about intent on the one hand and effect or response on the other. this paper reports a number of special attempts to discern the intentions of enemy propaganda during world war ii by means of rigorous analysis of the manifest content of the communications under control. among the many other problems in the area of intent analysis is the problem of discovering whether two communications-controlling groups, formally related or not, actually collaborate in their propaganda output; and if so, under what conditions, in what ways, and to what extent. this is the general context of this study. specifically, the subject of investigation was the nature of collaboration between the german and italian propaganda ministries in their short-wave radio output beamed to north america just before and after the entry of the united states into the war.”
Koppang, H.. (2009). Social Influence by Manipulation: A Definition and Case of Propaganda. Middle East Critique
“The article focuses on the understanding of the definition and theory of propaganda. it notes the immediate link of propaganda with political extremism and german war personalities like adolph hitler and josef goebbels. it examines the etymological origin of the word propaganda. it mentions that during the world war i, social commentary became propaganda in the u.s. and at the beginning of the world war ii, propaganda analysis propagated but was later substituted with a new form of communication research. furthermore, it states that the term propaganda was replaced with several words including persuasion, communication, and information in 1940.”
Holmes, A.. (2018). Worldview: The History of a Concept. Philosophia Christi
“Uncle andrew in c.s. lewis’s the magician’s nephew – the wonder of worldview i : protestant evangelicalism : original worldview thinkers in protestant evangelicalism. james orr – gordon h. clark and carl f.h. henry – abraham kuyper – herman dooyeweerd – francis a. schaeffer – the wonder of worldview ii : roman catholicism and eastern orthodoxy. catholicism as worldview – a ‘worldviewish’ pope – orthodoxy and worldview – a sacramental worldview – a philological history of ‘worldview.’ word studies on weltanschauung – the first use of weltanschauung in immanuel kant – the use of weltanschauung in german and other european languages – weltanschauung and ‘worldview’ in the english-speaking world – a philosophical history of ‘worldview’ : the nineteenth century. ‘worldview’ in g.w.f. hegel – ‘worldview’ and ‘lifeview’ in soren kierkegaard – ‘worldview’ in wilhelm dilthey – ‘worldview’ and perspectivism in friedrich nietzsche – a philosophical history of ‘worldview’ : the twentieth century i. ‘worldview’ in edmund husserl – ‘worldview’ in karl jaspers – ‘worldview’ in martin heidegger – a philosophical history of ‘worldview’ : the twentieth century ii. ‘worldview’ and ‘world picture’ in ludwig wittgenstein – donald davidson on ‘conceptual schemes’ – ‘worldview’ and postmodernity – a disciplinary history of ‘worldview’ i : the natural sciences. michael polanyi’s tacit dimension and personal knowledge in the natural sciences – thomas kuhn’s paradigm revolution in the philosophy of science – a disciplinary history of ‘worldview’ ii : the social sciences. ‘worldview’ in psychology. sigmund freud : ‘the question of a weltanschauung’ – c.g. jung : psychotherapy and a philosophy of life” – ‘worldview’ in sociology. karl mannheim : ‘on the interpretation of weltanschauung’ – peter berger and thomas luckmann : the sociology of knowledge and sacred canopy – karl marx and friedrich engels : worldview and ideology – ‘worldview’ in cultural anthropology. michael kearney : worldview – robert redfield : the primitive and modern worldviews – theological reflections on ‘worldview.’ worldviews and ‘worldview’ – christian worldview and ‘worldview.’ issues of objectivity – issues of subjectivity – issues of sin and spiritual warfare – issues of grace and redemption – philosophical reflections on ‘worldview.’ worldview and semiotics – worldview and narrative – worldview and reason – worldview and hermeneutics – worldview and epistemology – concluding reflections. dangers of world…”
Meja, V., Kettler, D., Meja, V., & Kettler, D.. (2018). On the Interpretation of Weltanschauung. In From Karl Mannheim
“In this article, simmel compares and contrasts the philosophical weltanschauungen of kant and goethe. simmel points out that whereas kant’s solution to the problem of knowledge and understanding involved the separation of subject from object, the mediation of senses through the concept and internalization of nature as representation, goethe sought to unify subject and object through the ideation of the senses and the immersion of the subject in nature. simmel points out that for goethe the philosophical first principle was life, leben, not reason. for goethe thought is an organic expression of leben, not the result of an imaginative synthesis of sensory intuitions. at the end of the article simmel seems to suggest that the modern philosophers must decide: kant or goethe! a choice between mechanism and vitalism; ontological separation and immersion.”
Altmann, G.. (2011). Science and Linguistics. In Contributions to Quantitative Linguistics
“Whorf’s hypothesis: language determines the weltanschauung (the community’sview of the world). community difference in thinking and perceiving result from language rather than experience. membership to a language community resticts to a specific weltanschauung and perception of the world.”
Take first the question of food and population. At present
the population of the globe is increasing at the rate of about
20 millions a year. Most of this increase is in Russia and
Southeast Asia. The population of Western Europe and
the United States is nearly stationary. Meanwhile, the food
supply of the world as a whole threatens to diminish, as a
result of unwise methods of cultivation and destruction of
forests. This is an explosive situation. Left to itself, it must
lead to a food shortage and thence to a world war. Technique,
however, makes other issues possible.
Vital statistics in the West are dominated by medicine
and birth control: the one diminishes the deaths, the other
the births. The result is that the average age in the West
increases: there is a smaller percentage of young people and
a larger percentage of old people. Some people consider that
this must have unfortunate results, but speaking as an old
person, I am not sure.
The danger of a world shortage of food may be averted
for a time by improvements in the technique of agriculture.
But, if population continues to increase at the present rate,
such improvements cannot long suffice. There will then be
two groups, one poor with an increasing population, the
other rich with a stationary population. Such a situation can
hardly fail to lead to world war. If there is not to be an
endless succession of wars, population will have to become
stationary throughout the world, and this will probably have
to be done, in many countries, as a result of governmental
measures. This will require an extension of scientific tech-
nique into very intimate matters. There are, however, two
other possibilities. War may become so destructive that, at
any rate for a time, there is no danger of overpopulation; or
the scientific nations may be defeated and anarchy may de-
stroy scientific technique.
Biology is likely to affect human life through the study of
heredity. Without science, men have changed domestic
animals and food plants enormously in advantageous ways.
It may be assumed that they will change them much more,
and much more quickly, by bringing the science of genetics
to bear. Perhaps, even, it may become possible artificially to
induce desirable mutations in genes. (Hitherto the only muta-
tions that can be artificially caused are neutral or harmful.)
In any case, it is pretty certain that scientific technique will
very soon effect great improvements in the animals and
plants that are useful to man.
When such methods of modifying the congenital character
of animals and plants have been pursued long enough to make
their success obvious, it is probable that there will be a
powerful movement for applying scientific methods to human
propagation. There would at first be strong religious and
emotional obstacles to the adoption of such a policy. But sup-
pose (say) Russia were able to overcome these obstacles
and to breed a race stronger, more intelligent, and more
resistant to disease than any race of men that has hitherto
existed, and suppose the other nations perceived that unless
they followed suit they would be defeated in war, then either
the other nations would voluntarily forgo their prejudices, or,
after defeat, they would be compelled to forgo them. Any
scientific technique, however beastly, is bound to spread if
it is useful in war— until such time as men decide that they have
had enough of war and will henceforth live in peace. As
that day does not seem to be at hand, scientific breeding of
human beings must be expected to come about. I shall return
to this subject in a later chapter.
Physiology and psychology afford fields for scientific tech-
nique which still await development. Two great men, Pavlov
and Freud, have laid the foundation. I do not accept the view
that they are in any essential conflict, but what structure
will be built on their foundations is still in doubt.
I think the subject which will be of most importance polit-
ically is mass psychology. Mass psychology is, scientifically
speaking, not a very advanced study, and so far its professors
have not been in universities: they have been advertisers,
politicians, and, above all, dictators. This study is immensely
useful to practical men, whether they wish to become rich
or to acquire the government. It is, of course, as a science,
founded upon individual psychology, but hitherto it has
employed rule-of-thumb methods which were based upon a
kind of intuitive common sense. Its importance has been
enormously increased by the growth of modern methods of
propaganda. Of these the most influential is what is called
"education." Religion plays a part, though a diminishing one;
the press, the cinema, and the radio play an increasing part.
What is essential in mass psychology is the art of per-
suasion. If you compare a speech of Hitler's with a speech of
(say) Edmund Burke, you will see what strides have been
made in the art since the eighteenth century. What went
wrong formerly was that people had read in books that man
is a rational animal, and framed their arguments on this
hypothesis. We now know that limelight and a brass band
do more to persuade than can be done by the most elegant
train of syllogisms. It may be hoped that in time anybody will
be able to persuade anybody of anything if he can catch
the patient young and is provided by the State with money
Man muß das Wahre immer wiederholen, weil auch der Irrtum um uns her immer wieder gepredigt wird, und zwar nicht von einzelnen, sondern von der Masse. In Zeitungen und Enzyklopädien, auf Schulen und Universitäten, überall ist der Irrtum oben auf, und es ist ihm wohl und behaglich, im Gefühl der Majorität, die auf seiner Seite ist. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(Transl.: Truth has to be repeated constantly, because Error also is being preached all the time, and not just by a few, but by the multitude. In the Press and Encyclopaedias, in Schools and Universities, everywhere Error holds sway, feeling happy and comfortable in the knowledge of having Majority on its side.)
The following statistical tools are of great value in this context because they enable researchers to investigate Wikipedia (e.g., “Edit Wars”) in an empirical fashion (see also Aceto & Pescapé, 2015; Darer, Farnan, & Wright, 2018; Gosain, Agarwal, Shekhawat, Acharya, & Chakravarty, 2018; Wright, Darer, & Farnan, 2018):
Darer, A., Farnan, O., & Wright, J. (2018). Automated discovery of internet censorship by web crawling. In WebSci 2018 – Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science. doi.org/10.1145/3201064.3201091
Gosain, D., Agarwal, A., Shekhawat, S., Acharya, H. B., & Chakravarty, S. (2018). Mending wall: On the implementation of censorship in India. In Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78813-5_21
Wright, J., Darer, A., & Farnan, O. (2018). On identifying anomalies in tor usage with applications in detecting internet censorship. In WebSci 2018 – Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science. doi.org/10.1145/3201064.3201093
Full-spectrum dominance also known as full-spectrum superiority, is a military entity’s achievement of control over all dimensions of the battlespace, effectively possessing an overwhelming diversity of resources in such areas as terrestrial, aerial, maritime, subterranean, extraterrestrial, psychological, and bio- or cyber-technological warfare.
Social identity is the portion of an individual’s self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group. As originally formulated by social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s and the 1980s, social identity theory introduced the concept of a social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behaviour.
Social identity theory (SIT) is described as a theory that predicts certain intergroup behaviours on the basis of perceived group status differences, the perceived legitimacy and stability of those status differences, and the perceived ability to move from one group to another. This contrasts with occasions where the term “social identity theory” is used to refer to general theorizing about human social selves. Moreover, and although some researchers have treated it as such, social identity theory was never intended to be a general theory of social categorization. It was awareness of the limited scope of social identity theory that led John Turner and colleagues to develop a cousin theory in the form of self-categorization theory, which built on the insights of social identity theory to produce a more general account of self and group processes. The term social identity approach, or social identity perspective, is suggested for describing the joint contributions of both social identity theory and self-categorization theory. Social identity theory suggests that an organization (or any other group-membership) can change individual behaviors if it can modify their self-identity or part of their self-concept that derives from the knowledge of, and emotional attachment to the group.
Music has significant effects on social identity. Already Aristotle and Plato argued that the “harmonics of music effect the harmony within society”. Today’s music industry (which is highly centralized) exerts powerful influences on society, especially on children and adolescents. The effects of today’s mainstream music on social identity are extremely worrisome (to say the least). The systematic (large scale) manipulation of social identities is an important tool of social engineering (cf. Adorno/Frankfurter school). Unfortunately there are almost no protective mechanisms in place which could prevent vulnerable populations from “weaponized music“. Music can be effectively utilized to destabilize society (via social identity) and it is thus a tool of psychological warfare, for instance, via systematic demoralization (violence, aggression, sexual promiscuity, ego-reinforcement, importance of money/materialistic thinking, etc.). Statistical research has demonstrated significant correlations between music and various detrimental behaviours (drug use, violence, promiscuity, etc.) and psychopathology. Music can be used to induce trance and manipulate basal unconscious processes. From a “mental hygiene” point of view the conclusion is clear: Be careful what enters your ears because it will effect your (unconscious) mind and your social identity (in analogy to the effects of unhealthy food intake and physical health). However, vice versa the flip-side holds also true: Music can be used to elevate the mind and foster moral and ethical behaviour (viz., harmony and virtues). However, this is clearly NOT happening.
Brown, R.. (2000). Social identity theory: past achievements, current problems and future challenges. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(6), 745–778.
“This article presents a critical review of social identity theory[ its major contributions to the study of inter`roup relations are discussed focusin` on its powerful explanations of such phenomena as in`roup bias responses of subordinate `roups to their unequal status position and intra`roup homo`eneity and stereotypin`[ in addition its stimulative role for theoretical elaborations of the contact hypothesis as a strate`y for improvin` inter`roup attitudes is noted[ then _ve issues which have proved problematic for social identity theory are ident! i_ed] the relationship between `roup identi_cation and in`roup bias^ the self!esteem hypoth! esis^ positiveðne`ative asymmetry in inter`roup discrimination^ the effects of inter`roup similarity^ and the choice of identity strate`ies by low!status `roups[ in a third section a future research a`enda for the theory is sketched out with _ve lines of enquiry noted as bein` particularly promisin`] expandin` the concept of social identity^ predictin` comparison choice in inter`roup settin`s^ incorporatin` affect into the theory^ mana`in` social identities in multicultural settin`s^ and inte`ratin` implicit and explicit processes[ the article concludes with some remarks on the potential applications of social identity principles[”
Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E.. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly
“Identity theory and social identity theory have more points of overlap than differences in their understanding of the self. for this reason, we argue that the unification of these two theories is advisable in order to both avoid redundancies in theorizing about the self and to provide a uniform approach to the multifaceted nature of identities in terms of their bases, their processes, and their outcomes. in this paper, we discuss the similarities and differences between the two theories, and then offer a unified identity theory based on 21 theoretical definitions, assumptions, and heuristics. following this, we demonstrate how the unified theory can be used to explain somewhat anomalous findings in two recent studies, one in the tradition of social identity theory and the other in the tradition of identity theory.”
Calhoun, C.. (1994). Social theory and the politics of identity. Social Psychology Quarterly
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“N.b. son chapitre 1 (m me titre) est en gros le m me texte que chapitre sur identity politics ds critical social theory”
Castells, M., Himanen, P., Castells, M., & Himanen, P.. (2011). The Power of Identity. In The Information Society and the Welfare State
“‘The power of identity’ is the second volume of manuel castells’ trilogy, ‘the information age: economy, society, and culture.’ it deals with the social, political, and cultural dynamics associated with the technological transformation of our societies and with the globalization of the economy. it analyzes the importance of cultural, religious, and national identities as sources of meaning for people, and the implications of these identities for social movements. it studies grassroots mobilizations against the unfettered globalization of wealth and power, and considers the formation of alternative projects of social organization, as represented by the environmental movement and the women’s movement. it also analyzes the crisis of the nation-state and its transformation into a network state, and the effects on political democracies of the difficulties of international governance and the submission of political representation to the dictates of media politics and the politics of scandal. this substantially expanded second edition updates and elaborates the analysis of these themes, adding new sections on al-qaeda and global terrorist networks, on the anti-globalization movement, on american unilateralism and the conflicts of global governance, on the crisis of political legitimacy throughout the world, and on the theory of the network state.”
Ellemers, N., & Haslam, S. A.. (2012). Social Identity Theory. In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (pp. 379–398). 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd
“See, stats, and : https : // www. researchgate. net/ publication/ 281208338 social chapter reads 1 , 444 1 : gazi grenoble 61 see all – text, letting . available : gazi retrieved : 14 journal of personality and social psychology , 67 , 741 – 763 . sidanius , j . , & pratto , f . (1999) . social dominance : an intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression .”
Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J., & White, K. M.. (1995). A Tale of Two Theories: A Critical Comparison of Identity Theory with Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(4), 255.
“Identity theory and social identity theory are two remarkably similar perspectives an the dynamic mediation of the socially constructed self between individual behavior and social structure. yet there is almost no systematic communication between these two perspectivies; they occupy parallel but separate universes. this article describes both theories, summarizes their similarities, critically discusses their differences, and outlines some research directions. against a background of metatheoretical similarity, we find marked differences in terms of 1) level of analysis, 2) the role of intergroup behavior, 3) the relationship between roles and groups, and 4) salience of social context and identity. differences can be traced largely to the microsociological roots of identity theory and the psychological roots of social identity theory. identity theory may be more effective in dealing with chronic identities and with interpersonal social interaction, while social identity theory may be more useful in txploring intergroup dimens1-ons and in specifying the sociocognitive genermive details of identity dynamics.”
Holzapfel, S. D., Bosch, P. R., Lee, C. D., Pohl, P. S., Szeto, M., Heyer, B., & Ringenbach, S. D.. (2019). Acute Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Post-Stroke Motor Function: A Pilot Study. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, 2019, 1–10.
“Background. stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability in the united states (us). assisted cycling therapy (act) at cadences of about 80 rpm has been associated with improvements in motor and clinical function in other clinical populations. the acute effects of act on motor function of persons with stroke have not been investigated. objectives. the primary purpose of this cross-over trial was to compare the effects of act, voluntary cycling (vc), and no cycling (nc) on upper (box and blocks test) and lower extremity motor function (lower extremity motor coordination test) in adults with chronic stroke (age: 60 ± 16 years; months since stroke: 96 ± 85). the secondary purpose was to examine average cycling cadence and ratings of perceived exertion as predictors of change in motor function following the exercise session. methods. twenty-two participants (female = 6, male = 16) completed one 20-min session each of act (mean cadence = 79.5 rpm, vc (mean cadence = 51.5 rpm), and nc on separate days in quasi-counterbalanced fashion). results. main effects of intervention did not differ between act and vc. within-intervention analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) pre- to posttest changes in all outcome measures for act but only in the lower extremity motor coordination test on the non-paretic side for vc. trend analyses revealed a positive relationship between average act cadences and improvements in upper and lower extremity motor function (p < 0.05). a positive relationship between average vc cadences and lower extremity function was also revealed (p < 0.05). conclusion. act and vc produced similar acute improvements in paretic and non-paretic lower extremity motor function whereas changes in upper extremity motor function were more limited. faster cycling cadences seem to be associated with greater acute effects.”
Hornsey, M. J.. (2008). Social Identity Theory and Self-categorization Theory: A Historical Review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass
“The social identity approach (comprising social identity theory and self-categorization theory) is a highly influential theory of group processes and intergroup relations, having redefined how we think about numerous group-mediated phenomena. since its emergence in the early 1970s, the social identity approach has been elaborated, re-interpreted, and occasionally misinterpreted. the goal of this paper is to provide a critical, historical review of how thinking and research within the social identity approach has evolved. the core principles of the theories are reviewed and discussed, and their effect on the field assessed. strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, with an eye to future developments.”
Huddy, L.. (2001). From social to political identity: A critical examination of social identity theory. Political Psychology
“Interest in the concept of identity has grown exponentially within both the humanities and social sciences, but the discussion of identity has had less impact than might be expected on the quantitative study of political behavior in general and on political psychology more specifically. one of the approaches that holds the most promise for political psychologists is social identity theory, as reflected in the thinking of henri tajfel, john turner, and colleagues. although the theory addresses the kinds of problems of interest to political psychologists, it has has limited impact on political psychology because of social identity theorists’ disinclination to examine the sources of social identity in a real world complicated by history and culture. in this review, four key issues are examined that hinder the successful application of social identity theory to political phenomena. these key issues are the existence of identity choice, the subjective meaning of identities, gradations in identity strength, and the considerable stability of many social and political identities.”
Major, B., & O’Brien, L. T.. (2005). The Social Psychology of Stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 393–421.
“This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. we review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. this model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one’s stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one’s social identity and as exceeding one’s coping resources. identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma.”
Somers, M. R.. (1994). The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society, 23(5), 605–649.
“This article argues for reconfiguring the study of identity formation through the concept of narrative. it is motivated by two recent but seemingly unrelated developments in social theory and society. one is the emergence of a wide-spread ‘identity politics’ and a concomitant scholarly focus on the ‘social construction of identity.’ the other is the reconfigured approach to the concept of narrative that researchers from many disciplines have been formulating in recent years. both are important developments not to be overlooked by social scientists and social theorists; both, however, have problems and limitations as they now stand. i argue in this article that the limitations of each potentially can be overcome by bringing the tow thematics together. the key concept i propose to achieve this reconfiguration is that of narrative inquiry.”
Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J.. (2006). Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly
… “… Identity theory and social identity theory * jan e. stets peter j. burke washington state university … by examining the self through the lens of both identity theory and social identity theory , we see how, in combination, they can move us toward a general theory of the self … n”
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C.. (2004). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. In Political Psychology (pp. 276–293). Psychology Press
“The aim of this chapter is to present an outline of a theory of intergroup conflict and some preliminary data relating to the theory. it begins with a discussion of alternative approaches to intergroup conflict with special attention to the ‘realistic group conflict theory’ (rct). rct’s relative neglect of the processes underlying the development and maintenance of group identity and the possibly autonomous effects upon the in-group and intergroup behavior is responsible for some inconsistencies between the empirical data and the theory in its ‘classical’ form. in this sense, the theoretical orientation to be outlined in this chapter is intended not to replace rct, but to supplement it in some respects that seem essential for an adequate social psychology of intergroup conflict–particularly as the understanding of the psychological aspects of social change cannot be achieved without an appropriate analysis of the social psychology of social conflict. the authors argue that people derive a sense of self-worth and social belongingness from their memberships in groups, and so they are motivated to draw favorable comparisons between their own group and other groups.”
Divide and rule (from Latin dīvide et imperā), or divide and conquer, in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.
“Divide et impera” is cited as a common principle in politics by Traiano Boccalini in La bilancia politica. The use of this technique is meant to empower the sovereign to control subjects, populations, or factions of different interests, who collectively might be able to oppose his rule. Machiavelli identifies a similar application to military strategy, advising in Book VI of The Art of War (L’arte della guerra): a Captain should endeavor with every art to divide the forces of the enemy. Machiavelli advises this act be achieved either by making him suspicious of his men in whom he trusted, or by giving him cause that he has to separate his forces, and, because of this, become weaker.
The maxim divide et impera has been attributed to Philip II of Macedon. It was utilised by the Roman ruler Caesar and the French emperor Napoleon (together with the maxim divide ut regnes).
Elements of this technique involve:
creating or encouraging divisions among the subjects to prevent alliances that could challenge the sovereign
aiding and promoting those who are willing to cooperate with the sovereign
fostering distrust and enmity between local rulers
encouraging meaningless expenditures that reduce the capability for political and military spending
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What Is Enlightenment? by Immanuel Kant (1784)
Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one’s own understanding without another’s guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one’s own mind without another’s guidance. Dare to know! (Sapere aude.) “Have the courage to use your own understanding,” is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.
Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why such a large part of mankind gladly remain minors all their lives, long after nature has freed them from external guidance. They are the reasons why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as guardians. It is so comfortable to be a minor. If I have a book that thinks for me, a pastor who acts as my conscience, a physician who prescribes my diet, and so on–then I have no need to exert myself. I have no need to think, if only I can pay; others will take care of that disagreeable business for me. Those guardians who have kindly taken supervision upon themselves see to it that the overwhelming majority of mankind–among them the entire fair sex–should consider the step to maturity, not only as hard, but as extremely dangerous. First, these guardians make their domestic cattle stupid and carefully prevent the docile creatures from taking a single step without the leading-strings to which they have fastened them. Then they show them the danger that would threaten them if they should try to walk by themselves. Now this danger is really not very great; after stumbling a few times they would, at last, learn to walk. However, examples of such failures intimidate and generally discourage all further attempts.
Thus it is very difficult for the individual to work himself out of the nonage which has become almost second nature to him. He has even grown to like it, and is at first really incapable of using his own understanding because he has never been permitted to try it. Dogmas and formulas, these mechanical tools designed for reasonable use–or rather abuse–of his natural gifts, are the fetters of an everlasting nonage. The man who casts them off would make an uncertain leap over the narrowest ditch, because he is not used to such free movement. That is why there are only a few men who walk firmly, and who have emerged from nonage by cultivating their own minds.
It is more nearly possible, however, for the public to enlighten itself; indeed, if it is only given freedom, enlightenment is almost inevitable. There will always be a few independent thinkers, even among the self-appointed guardians of the multitude. Once such men have thrown off the yoke of nonage, they will spread about them the spirit of a reasonable appreciation of man’s value and of his duty to think for himself. It is especially to be noted that the public which was earlier brought under the yoke by these men afterwards forces these very guardians to remain in submission, if it is so incited by some of its guardians who are themselves incapable of any enlightenment. That shows how pernicious it is to implant prejudices: they will eventually revenge themselves upon their authors or their authors’ descendants. Therefore, a public can achieve enlightenment only slowly. A revolution may bring about the end of a personal despotism or of avaricious tyrannical oppression, but never a true reform of modes of thought. New prejudices will serve, in place of the old, as guide lines for the unthinking multitude.
This enlightenment requires nothing but freedom–and the most innocent of all that may be called “freedom”: freedom to make public use of one’s reason in all matters. Now I hear the cry from all sides: “Do not argue!” The officer says: “Do not argue–drill!” The tax collector: “Do not argue–pay!” The pastor: “Do not argue–believe!” Only one ruler in the world says: “Argue as much as you please, but obey!” We find restrictions on freedom everywhere. But which restriction is harmful to enlightenment? Which restriction is innocent, and which advances enlightenment? I reply: the public use of one’s reason must be free at all times, and this alone can bring enlightenment to mankind.
On the other hand, the private use of reason may frequently be narrowly restricted without especially hindering the progress of enlightenment. By “public use of one’s reason” I mean that use which a man, as scholar, makes of it before the reading public. I call “private use” that use which a man makes of his reason in a civic post that has been entrusted to him. In some affairs affecting the interest of the community a certain [governmental] mechanism is necessary in which some members of the community remain passive. This creates an artificial unanimity which will serve the fulfillment of public objectives, or at least keep these objectives from being destroyed. Here arguing is not permitted: one must obey. Insofar as a part of this machine considers himself at the same time a member of a universal community–a world society of citizens–(let us say that he thinks of himself as a scholar rationally addressing his public through his writings) he may indeed argue, and the affairs with which he is associated in part as a passive member will not suffer. Thus it would be very unfortunate if an officer on duty and under orders from his superiors should want to criticize the appropriateness or utility of his orders. He must obey. But as a scholar he could not rightfully be prevented from taking notice of the mistakes in the military service and from submitting his views to his public for its judgment. The citizen cannot refuse to pay the taxes levied upon him; indeed, impertinent censure of such taxes could be punished as a scandal that might cause general disobedience. Nevertheless, this man does not violate the duties of a citizen if, as a scholar, he publicly expresses his objections to the impropriety or possible injustice of such levies. A pastor, too, is bound to preach to his congregation in accord with the doctrines of the church which he serves, for he was ordained on that condition. But as a scholar he has full freedom, indeed the obligation, to communicate to his public all his carefully examined and constructive thoughts concerning errors in that doctrine and his proposals concerning improvement of religious dogma and church institutions. This is nothing that could burden his conscience. For what he teaches in pursuance of his office as representative of the church, he represents as something which he is not free to teach as he sees it. He speaks as one who is employed to speak in the name and under the orders of another. He will say: “Our church teaches this or that; these are the proofs which it employs.” Thus he will benefit his congregation as much as possible by presenting doctrines to which he may not subscribe with full conviction. He can commit himself to teach them because it is not completely impossible that they may contain hidden truth. In any event, he has found nothing in the doctrines that contradicts the heart of religion. For if he believed that such contradictions existed he would not be able to administer his office with a clear conscience. He would have to resign it. Therefore the use which a scholar makes of his reason before the congregation that employs him is only a private use, for no matter how sizable, this is only a domestic audience. In view of this he, as preacher, is not free and ought not to be free, since he is carrying out the orders of others. On the other hand, as the scholar who speaks to his own public (the world) through his writings, the minister in the public use of his reason enjoys unlimited freedom to use his own reason and to speak for himself. That the spiritual guardians of the people should themselves be treated as minors is an absurdity which would result in perpetuating absurdities.
But should a society of ministers, say a Church Council, . . . have the right to commit itself by oath to a certain unalterable doctrine, in order to secure perpetual guardianship over all its members and through them over the people? I say that this is quite impossible. Such a contract, concluded to keep all further enlightenment from humanity, is simply null and void even if it should be confirmed by the sovereign power, by parliaments, and the most solemn treaties. An epoch cannot conclude a pact that will commit succeeding ages, prevent them from increasing their significant insights, purging themselves of errors, and generally progressing in enlightenment. That would be a crime against human nature whose proper destiny lies precisely in such progress. Therefore, succeeding ages are fully entitled to repudiate such decisions as unauthorized and outrageous. The touchstone of all those decisions that may be made into law for a people lies in this question: Could a people impose such a law upon itself? Now it might be possible to introduce a certain order for a definite short period of time in expectation of better order. But, while this provisional order continues, each citizen (above all, each pastor acting as a scholar) should be left free to publish his criticisms of the faults of existing institutions. This should continue until public understanding of these matters has gone so far that, by uniting the voices of many (although not necessarily all) scholars, reform proposals could be brought before the sovereign to protect those congregations which had decided according to their best lights upon an altered religious order, without, however, hindering those who want to remain true to the old institutions. But to agree to a perpetual religious constitution which is not publicly questioned by anyone would be, as it were, to annihilate a period of time in the progress of man’s improvement. This must be absolutely forbidden.
A man may postpone his own enlightenment, but only for a limited period of time. And to give up enlightenment altogether, either for oneself or one’s descendants, is to violate and to trample upon the sacred rights of man. What a people may not decide for itself may even less be decided for it by a monarch, for his reputation as a ruler consists precisely in the way in which he unites the will of the whole people within his own. If he only sees to it that all true or supposed [religious] improvement remains in step with the civic order, he can for the rest leave his subjects alone to do what they find necessary for the salvation of their souls. Salvation is none of his business; it is his business to prevent one man from forcibly keeping another from determining and promoting his salvation to the best of his ability. Indeed, it would be prejudicial to his majesty if he meddled in these matters and supervised the writings in which his subjects seek to bring their [religious] views into the open, even when he does this from his own highest insight, because then he exposes himself to the reproach: Caesar non est supra grammaticos. 2 It is worse when he debases his sovereign power so far as to support the spiritual despotism of a few tyrants in his state over the rest of his subjects.
When we ask, Are we now living in an enlightened age? the answer is, No, but we live in an age of enlightenment. As matters now stand it is still far from true that men are already capable of using their own reason in religious matters confidently and correctly without external guidance. Still, we have some obvious indications that the field of working toward the goal [of religious truth] is now opened. What is more, the hindrances against general enlightenment or the emergence from self-imposed nonage are gradually diminishing. In this respect this is the age of the enlightenment and the century of Frederick [the Great].
A prince ought not to deem it beneath his dignity to state that he considers it his duty not to dictate anything to his subjects in religious matters, but to leave them complete freedom. If he repudiates the arrogant word “tolerant”, he is himself enlightened; he deserves to be praised by a grateful world and posterity as that man who was the first to liberate mankind from dependence, at least on the government, and let everybody use his own reason in matters of conscience. Under his reign, honorable pastors, acting as scholars and regardless of the duties of their office, can freely and openly publish their ideas to the world for inspection, although they deviate here and there from accepted doctrine. This is even more true of every person not restrained by any oath of office. This spirit of freedom is spreading beyond the boundaries [of Prussia] even where it has to struggle against the external hindrances established by a government that fails to grasp its true interest. [Frederick’s Prussia] is a shining example that freedom need not cause the least worry concerning public order or the unity of the community. When one does not deliberately attempt to keep men in barbarism, they will gradually work out of that condition by themselves.
I have emphasized the main point of the enlightenment–man’s emergence from his self-imposed nonage–primarily in religious matters, because our rulers have no interest in playing the guardian to their subjects in the arts and sciences. Above all, nonage in religion is not only the most harmful but the most dishonorable. But the disposition of a sovereign ruler who favors freedom in the arts and sciences goes even further: he knows that there is no danger in permitting his subjects to make public use of their reason and to publish their ideas concerning a better constitution, as well as candid criticism of existing basic laws. We already have a striking example [of such freedom], and no monarch can match the one whom we venerate.
But only the man who is himself enlightened, who is not afraid of shadows, and who commands at the same time a well disciplined and numerous army as guarantor of public peace–only he can say what [the sovereign of] a free state cannot dare to say: “Argue as much as you like, and about what you like, but obey!” Thus we observe here as elsewhere in human affairs, in which almost everything is paradoxical, a surprising and unexpected course of events: a large degree of civic freedom appears to be of advantage to the intellectual freedom of the people, yet at the same time it establishes insurmountable barriers. A lesser degree of civic freedom, however, creates room to let that free spirit expand to the limits of its capacity. Nature, then, has carefully cultivated the seed within the hard core–namely the urge for and the vocation of free thought. And this free thought gradually reacts back on the modes of thought of the people, and men become more and more capable of acting in freedom. At last free thought acts even on the fundamentals of government and the state finds it agreeable to treat man, who is now more than a machine, in accord with his dignity.