The idea behind the panopticon is that you never know whether you are watched or not. It’s thus primarily a psychological prison which works because the surveillance mechanism is internalized and does not have to be constantly reinforced externally.

Argus Panoptes – a giant with multiple eyes is a character in Greek mythology.

Unbeknownst to many Bentham (who was involved in the slave trade, as was Adam Smith) wrote an essay in favor of pederasty (i.e., the homosexual relationship between an adult male and a pubescent or adolescent male.) www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/eresources/exhibitions/sw25/bentham/index.html

LibriVox

Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation

Jeremy Bentham's Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, a classic text in modern philosophy and jurisprudence, first published in 1789, focuses on the principle of utility and how this view of morality ties into legislative practices. Bentham's ambition in life was to create a complete Utilitarian code of law. The philosophy of utilitarianism argues that the right act or policy is that which would cause "the greatest good for the greatest number of people", also known as "the greatest happiness principle", or the principle of utility.

Bentham's principle of utility regards "good" as that which produces the greatest amount of pleasure, and the minimum amount of pain; and "evil" as that which produces the most pain without the pleasure. This concept of pleasure and pain is defined by Bentham as physical as well as spiritual. Bentham writes about this principle as it manifests itself within the legislation of a society. He lays down a set of criteria for measuring the extent of pain or pleasure that a certain decision will create.

Bentham argues that certain unnecessary laws and punishments could ultimately lead to new and more dangerous vices than those being punished to begin with. He is of opinion that the concept of the individual pursuing his or her own happiness cannot be necessarily declared "right", because often these individual pursuits can lead to greater pain and less pleasure for the society as a whole. Therefore, the legislation of a society is vital to maintaining a society with optimum pleasure and the minimum degree of pain for the greatest amount of people. (Summary adapted from wikipedia)

Meta-Coordinator/Cataloging: Jc Guan & Anna Simon
  • 00 - Preface
  • 01 - Chapter 1: Of the Principle of Utility
  • 02 - Chapter 2: Of Principles Adverse to that of Utility
  • 03 - Chapter 3: Of the Four Sanctions or Sources of Pain and Pleasure
  • 04 - Chapter 4: Value of a Lot of Pleasure, How to be Measured
  • 05 - Chapter 5: Pleasures and Pains, Their Kinds
  • 06a - Chapter 6, part a: Of Circumstances Influencing Sensibility
  • 06b - Chapter 6, part b: Of Circumstances Influencing Sensibility
  • 07 - Chapter 7: Of Human Actions in General
  • 08 - Chapter 8: Of Intentionality
  • 09 - Chapter 9: Of Consciousness
  • 10a - Chapter 10, part a: Of Motives
  • 10b - Chapter 10, part b: Of Motives
  • 10c - Chapter 10, part c: Of Motives
  • 11 - Chapter 11: Of Human Dispositions in General
  • 12 - Chapter 12: Of the Consequences of a Mischievous Act
  • 13 - Chapter 13: Of Cases Unmeet for Punishment
  • 14 - Chapter 14: Of the Proportion Between Punishments and Offences
  • 15 - Chapter 15: Of the Properties to be Given to a Lot of Punishment
  • 16-1 - Chapter 16, paragraph 1: Classes of Offences
  • 16-2a - Chapter 16, paragraph 2, part a: Divisions and sub-divisions
  • 16-2b - Chapter 16, paragraph 2, part b: Divisions and sub-divisions
  • 16-3a - Chapter 16, paragraph 3, part a: Genera of Class I
  • 16-3b - Chapter 16, paragraph 3, part b: Genera of Class I
  • 16-3c - Chapter 16, paragraph 3, part c: Genera of Class I
  • 16-3d - Chapter 16, paragraph 3, part d: Genera of Class I
  • 16-4 - Chapter 16, paragraph 4: Advantages of the present method
  • 16-5 - Chapter 16, paragraph 5: Characters of the five classes
  • 17 - Chapter 17: Of the Limits of the Penal Branch of Jurisprudence

Further References

Bentham, J.. (2012). The panopticon. In Offenders or Citizens? Readings in Rehabilitation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4324/9780203722855
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Elden, S.. (2003). Plague, panopticon, police. Surveillance and Society

Plain numerical DOI:
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Mathiesen, T.. (1997). The Viewer Society: Michel Foucault’s ‘Panopticon’ Revisited. Theoretical Criminology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1362480697001002003
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Caluya, G.. (2010). The post-panoptic society? Reassessing foucault in surveillance studies. Social Identities

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13504630.2010.509565
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Koskela, H.. (2003). ‘Cam Era’ – the contemporary urban panopticon. Surveillance and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.24908/ss.v1i3.3342
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Lyon, D.. (2006). Theorizing surveillance: The panopticon and beyond. Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond

Plain numerical DOI: 10.4324/9781843926818
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Spears, R., & Lea, M.. (1994). Panacea or Panopticon?: The Hidden Power in Computer-Mediated Communication. Communication Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/009365094021004001
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Karpf, D.. (2010). Macaca moments reconsidered: Electoral panopticon or Netroots Mobilization?. Journal of Information Technology and Politics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/19331681003748891
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Boyne, R.. (2000). Post-panopticism. Economy and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/030851400360505
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J.. (2013). The pseudo-panopticon: The illusion created by CSR-related transparency and the internet. Corporate Communications

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/13563281311319490
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Bentham, J.. (1791). Panopticon or the inspection house. Postscript

Plain numerical DOI:
DOI URL
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Bentham, J.. (1995). Panopticon. In The Panopticon writings

Plain numerical DOI:
DOI URL
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D. Haggerty, Richard V. Ericson, K.. (2000). The surveillant assemblage. British Journal of Sociology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/00071310020015280
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Philo, C., Parr, H., & Burns, N.. (2017). The rural panopticon. Journal of Rural Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.08.007
DOI URL
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Dueck, G.. (2006). Panopticon. Informatik-Spektrum

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00287-006-0116-6
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Bain, P., & Taylor, P.. (2000). Entrapped by the “electronic panopticon”? Worker resistance in the call centre. New Technology, Work and Employment

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/1468-005X.00061
DOI URL
directSciHub download

Mitrou, L., Kandias, M., Stavrou, V., & Gritzalis, D.. (2014). Social media profiling: A Panopticon or Omniopticon tool?. Proc. of the 6th Conference of the Surveillance Studies Network

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/nature03044
DOI URL
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