himself, but the, and, this is the most extraordinary effect of all that every
natural occurring narcotic stimulant, sedative, or hallucinogen, was discov-
ered before the dawn of history, I don't think there is one single one of
these naturally occurring ones which modern science has discovered.
Modern science has of course better ways of extracting the active principals
of these drugs and of course has discovered numerous ways of synthesizing
new substances of extreme power, but the actual discovery of these natural-
ly occurring things was made by primitive man goodness knows how many
centuries ago. There is for example, in the underneath the, lake dwellings of
the early Neolithic that have been dug up in Switzerland we have found
poppy-heads, which looks as though people were already using this most
ancient and powerful and dangerous of narcotics, even before the days of
the rise of agriculture. So that man was apparently a dope-bag addict before
he was a farmer, which is a very curious comment on human nature.
But, the difference, as I say, between the ancient mind-changers, the tradi-
tional mind- changers, and the new substances is that they were extremely
harmful and the new ones are not. I mean even the permissible mind-
changer alcohol is not entirely harmless, as people may have noticed, and I
mean the other ones, the non-permissible ones, such as opium and cocaine,
opium and its derivatives, are very harmful indeed.
They rapidly produce addiction, and in some cases lead at an extraordinary
rate to physical degeneration and death.
Whereas these new substances, this is really very extraordinary, that a num-
ber of these new mind-changing substances can produce enormous revolu-
tions within the mental side of our being, and yet do almost nothing to the
physiological side. You can have an enormous revolution, for example, with
LSD-25 or with the newly synthesized drug psilocybin, which is the active
principal of the Mexican sacred mushroom. You can have this enormous